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QSight Triple Quad 200 Series

Ideal for analyzing food, cannabis, and environmental samples, our robust and reliable QSight® triple quad systems consistently deliver the throughput and productivity you need in your analytical testing lab. Now we’ve added the premier model to our QSight family: the high performance 400 series. This ready-to-implement solution has the highest sensitivity and throughput the industry has ever seen and the capability to test for the most challenging, complex samples, including cannabis.

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BC003844
QSight 400 Series
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BC003382
QSight 200 Series
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BC003264
QSight 100 Series
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Overview

This workhorse system provides exceptional sensitivity for difficult matrices in commercial testing labs and the food, environmental, and cannabis industries – it’s the perfect instrument for labs that need uncompromising performance.

  • High sensitivity to meet standard and regulatory requirements
  • StayClean Source, self-cleaning design for maximum sensitivity and exceptional uptime
  • Laminar Flow Ion Guide for highly efficient field-free transmission, providing virtually no maintenance requirements
  • Dual Source technology gives you the capability to set ESI or APCI modes, with two independent probes for true multiplexing
  • Modular Simplicity 3Q software to acquire, quantify, and report with flexible data viewing options and powerful remote diagnostics.

Achieve the highest levels of performance from sample handling right through results and reporting with QSight triple quad LC/MS/MS systems.

Specifications

Model Name QSight 200 Series
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Application Note

A Multiclass Multiresidue Method for Analysis of Veterinary Drugs in Chicken by UHPLC/MS/MS

Veterinary drugs are used in animal production to treat diseases, prevent infection and protect growth of animals, which helps provide quality marketplace. However the uncontrolled use may cause heavy human disease so regulatory agencies around the world have established maximum residue levels (MRLs) or tolerances of veterinary drugs in foods. Drug analysis is generally challenging, due to the complexity of sample matrices and diversity of analytes from various classes of chemical properties. In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective method has been developed for analysis of 73 veterinary drugs (covering 13 different chemical classes) in chicken samples by coupling solvent extraction method with LC/MS/MS.

PDF 1 MB
A New, Sensitive Method for Lignan Metabolite Detection of Flaxseed-Fed Mice Using LC/MS/MS

A New, Sensitive Method for Lignan Metabolite Detection of Flaxseed-Fed Mice Using LC/MS/MS

PDF 1 MB
A Single Cannabis Method to Meet California Pesticide and Mycotoxin Residues Regulatory Requirements

Testing for the levels of pesticide and mycotoxins in cannabis is important to ensure consumer safety and quality control. In this work, the PerkinElmer application development team analyzed all 66 pesticides (including very hydrophobic and chlorinated pesticides typically analyzed by GC-MS/MS) and five mycotoxins spiked in cannabis flower extracts well below the action limits specified by the state of California. A LC-MS/MS instrument was used with ESI and APCI sources and a simple solvent extraction method with excellent recoveries for all analytes in acceptable range of 70-120%.

PDF 2 MB
Analysis of Acrylamide in Potato Chips by Isotopically Standard Addition UHPLC-MS/MS

Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen organic compound that is found in some foods that are cooked at elevated temperatures. It’s origins are due to the condensation of the amino acid asparagine and glucose as part of Maillard reaction. In 2002, Acrylamide was found to be present in french fries and baked bread. This compound has now also been found in some other food stuff like coffee, black olives, dried pears, and peanuts. As a result the and World Health Organizations have promptly limited its presence for human consumption.

PDF 1 MB
Analysis of Benzo[a]pyrene in Tobacco and Related Products

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known carcinogenic compound found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. The Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco (CORESTA) has recommended a gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method to determine concentrations of B[a]P in tobacco products. In the proposed method, B[a]P is extracted from the tobacco with methanol, followed by a solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent concentration prior to GC/MS analysis. The CORESTA recommended method is time-consuming, especially in sample preparation procedures, and showed low sensitivity. In this application note, a simple, reliable and fast analytical method for the determination and quantification of B[a]P in tobacco products has been developed using a PerkinElmer QSight® LX50 UHPLC system, coupled to a PerkinElmer QSight 220 MS/MS detector.

PDF 582 KB
Analysis of Multi-Residue Pesticides in Rice by LC/MS/MS

Due to the large number of pesticides potentially used in rice production, the use of multi-residue methods capable of determining many pesticides in one single run is the most efficient approach. In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective multiresidue method has been developed for analysis of over 200 pesticides in rice samples by coupling a modified QuEChERS extraction method with LC-MS/MS. Using time-managedMRM in the QSight® triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the optimum dwell time of multiple MRM transitions can be generated automatically for the targeted analytes.

PDF 1 MB
Analysis of PPCPs in Drinking Water at Low PPT Levels by Online SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS

Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are an emerging environmental concern, and include human and veterinary prescription and over-the-counter medications, sunscreens, lotions, soaps, and insect repellants. These commonly encountered products can enter the environment through various sources, including municipal wastewater, polluting ground water, surface water, and even drinking water. The analytical challenge associated with PPCP testing is the wide variety of chemical classes/ types that are typically present at parts per trillion (ng/L) concentrations in drinking water. The automated approach described in this application note allows for significant and efficient analyte concentration, obviating the need for elaborate and time-consuming sample preparation procedures, and thus improving productivity, reducing solvent usage and laboratory waste.

PDF 2 MB
Analysis of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances by EPA Method 8327 Using the QSight 220 UHPLC/MS/MS

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made carbon-chain based compounds that have been widely used in commercial and industrial products such as fire-fighting foams, water proofing treatments for clothing and furniture, nonstick cookware, and paper. PFAS’ are thermally and chemically stable, and resistant to degradation, making them ideal for many applications, but also allows the chemicals to bioaccumulate in the environment, leading to a designation as a contaminant of concern to human health and wildlife.

US EPA promulgated SW-846 Method 8327 for the analysis of PFAS in four non-potable aqueous matrices using external standard calibration and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In this application note, a fast and robust method for the analysis of all analytes listed in EPA Method 8327 is presented, using a PerkinElmer QSight® LX50 ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system coupled with the PerkinElmer QSight 220 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

PDF 1 MB
Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Regulated by Oregon State Using LC/MS/MS

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has become the method of choice for pesticide. The state of Oregon has issued regulatory limits for 59 pesticide residues in both cannabis flower and concentrates, while other states have come up with their own lists of pesticide residues relating to medical marijuana and cannabis testing.

PDF 1 MB
Analysis of Pork Adulterated Meat

A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS method for fast identification and analysis of meat samples using three peptides specific for pork as biomarkers. . The optimized sample preparation procedure is easy to follow and can be used for analyzing raw, cooked and processed meat products. This method can selectively detect peptides from pork meat species at a threshold detection limit of 1% w/w (10 mg/g) in a variety of food products and thus the method can be useful for analysis of Halal food (or pork related food products) samples.

PDF 1 MB
Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula by UHPLC-MS MS

Water-soluble vitamins (WSV), comprised primarily of the vitamin B complex, are essential ingredients in many foods, particularly in infant formulas. When analyzing fortified foods, this can be particularly challenging due to the wide range in concentration of vitamins, in keeping with daily allowances. This application note presents a LC-MS/MS method for the efficient, routine and robust chromatographic analysis of B-vitamins in infant formula. Eight water soluble vitamins over a wide concentration range were identified and quantified in under four minutes. The results showed excellent retention time repeatability and the method was able to detect vitamin B12 at 0.5 ppb, well below the expected level of ~2 ppb in infant formulas.

PDF 1 MB
Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and Infant Formula by QSight LC-MS-MS

Aflatoxin B1 is often found in animal feeds such as corn, cottonseed cake, groundnut meal, and other agricultural commodities. When these contaminated feeds are ingested by milk-producing animals, such as cattle, aflatoxin B1 can be converted to aflatoxin M1 (a hydroxy derivate of aflatoxin B1) by oxidation metabolism, and then excreted in milk. To protect consumers from the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxin M1, regulatory agencies have established regulatory limits or action levels for aflatoxin M1 in milk products.

In this study, a simple, fast, selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS method for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 is presented, along with the evaluation of three sample preparation methods.

PDF 949 KB
Determination of Coumarin in Electronic Cigarette Liquids by LC/MS/MS

Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) occurs as a natural component in some plants, and is utilized as a flavoring ingredient in some foods, tobaccos and cosmetic products. In recent years, coumarin has been added to electronic cigarette liquid nicotine solutions as a flavoring component, producing a complex flavor profile with aromas of vanilla, almond, cherry and cinnamon. Coumarin has been found to exhibit hepatoxic effects, and has been banned by the FDA in food products, but this ban does not extend to tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes.

This application note details a method for the analysis of coumarin in electronic cigarette liquid nicotine cartridges, utilizing PerkinElmer UHPLC system coupled to a QSight® 220 triple quadrupole mass detector with a dual ionization source.

PDF 2 MB
Determination of Mycotoxins in Cereals by LC/MS/MS with Online SPE

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi, and are capable of causing disease and death in both humans and animals. Sample preparation is a critical step in the successful analysis of mycotoxins in food matrices. The "dilute and shoot" approach is a quick and easy way to introduce the sample into the LC/MS/MS analysis. However, due to the complexity of food matrices, this approach will often result in irreproducible matrix effects. To overcome these problems and improve sensitivity, this application note details the use of online solid phase extraction (SPE), coupled to an LC/MS/MS system for sample enrichment.

PDF 3 MB
Determination of Sulfonamides in milk by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (QSight™)

Antibiotics are used in dairy cattle for different treatments, but it leads to accumulation of these residues in milk. Presence of such residues in human food can be responsible for allergic reactions, toxic effects and develops resistant strains of bacteria. To protect consumers, regulatory agencies in the European Union published several official documents to regulate the control of veterinary drugs. Council Directive 96/23/EC establishes the veterinary residue control in food producing animals. In India, as per FSSAI (gazette notification dated 20th July 2018) and EIC (RMP for Aquaculture, Egg, Honey, Milk Poultry etc.) it is a mandate to do the analysis of antibiotics. EIC and FSSAI both have maximum residue limits (MRLs) for various antibiotic residues for food matrices from animals. It is essential to test milk for residues of sulfonamides considering safety and prevent exposure of consumers to veterinary drugs. In this work, we present a fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of sulfonamides antibiotics in milk.

PDF 579 KB
Determination of Thirteen Beta Agonists in Pork Using UHPLC - Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (ß- agonists) are synthetic drugs utilized in the treatment of conditions such as asthma in humans, and are also used as a growth-promoting agent in food-producing animals. The use of ß- agonists in food-producing livestock has been either banned or regulated across many countries owing to human health concerns.

To aid in the monitoring and detection of ß- agonists in livestock, a highly sensitive and selective analytical method has been developed, and is presented in this study. This LC/MS/MS method details the analysis of 13 ß- agonists in pork samples, and utilizes isotopically-labeled internal standards to compensate for matrix effects present in complex food matrices.

PDF 1 MB
Estimation of 136 pesticide residue in Black Pepper using QuEChERS extraction technique and QSight™ LC-MS/MS

It is very well known that Black pepper is a complex matrix that requires a proper extraction and clean-up method for interferences. In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective multi-residue method has been developed for analysis of over 136 pesticides in Pepper samples by coupling a modified QuEChERS extraction method with LC/MS/MS. Using time-managed- MRM in the QSight triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the optimum dwell time of multiple MRM transitions can be generated automatically for the targeted analytes. This not only saves time in method development but also improves data quality and analytical performance of instrument.

PDF 1 MB
Estrogen Monitoring in River Water by LC/MS/MS with Online SPE

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been found to have harmful effects on the health of both humans and wildlife. Of these EDCs, endogenous estrogens, such as estriol, 17ß-estriadiol, and estrone are of particular interest due to their potency/physiological activity even at very low levels. These hormones are particularly challenging to monitor, as concentrations are typically expected to be in the low ng/mL (ppb) to low pg/mL (ppt) range.

To improve sensitivity, this work utilizes the addition of on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to an LC/MS/MS system for sample enrichment and quantitation. This approach allows for significant/efficient analyte concentration, obviating the need for elaborate and time-consuming sample preparation procedures. Due to enrichment, compared to other methods, large sample volumes (= ½ liter) are no longer needed to reach part per trillion levels for estrogen monitoring in river water.

PDF 2 MB
Method Validation of Milk and Egg Allergens in Bakery Products by LC-MS/MS Using QSight Technology

To protect the health of allergic consumers from the inadvertent or intentional contamination by allergens, different analytical methods for the sensitive detection of allergens in food were developed over the years. In this work we present the performance of a targeted method using the QSight 220 Liquid Chromatography Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of milk and egg allergens in thermally processed bakery products.

PDF 1 MB
Multi-residue Analysis of Pesticides in Animal Feed Using the QSight LC/MS/MS

Pesticides are employed in the growing of crops to prevent damage from a number of pests and fungi. When crops are grown to produce feed for livestock, there is a potential for pesticides residues to remain on the feeding stuffs, posing a risk to the livestock ingesting them. Pesticide residues are regulated by a number of governmental agencies, necessitating analytical methods that are robust enough to analyze complex matrices for a variety of analytes, while also being sensitive and selective enough to meet stringent regulations. In this application note, a fast, sensitive, and selective multi-residue method has been developed for the analysis of 94 pesticides in animal feeding stuffs, with reporting limits below European Commission MRLs of 0.01 mg/kg.

PDF 2 MB
Multiclass-Multianalyte Method for Mycotoxin Testing in Foods Using Immunoaffinity Column Sample Clean-up with QSight LC/MS/MS

This work shows a reliable, sensitive and selective method for multi-mycotoxin determination in food samples using a PerkinElmer QSight 220 LC-MS/MS system. The method has been validated in eight different matrices and can be used in routine testing labs to meet regulatory requirements.

PDF 2 MB
Pesticide in Grapes by LC-MS/MS

The Grape crop is one of the most important fruit crops consumed in the world. Grapes are consumed both as fresh and as processed products, such as wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar and grape seed oil. A large variety of pesticides are used in grape production throughout its growing season to control pests and diseases in vineyards and to increase crop yield. Pesticide residue is a major concern for the stakeholders of the grape industry, due to more and more stringent regulations and safety standards in most countries.

PDF 1 MB
Rapid Analysis of Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water Using UHPLC/MS/MS

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are a class of undesired by-products resulting from the reaction of chlorinated disinfectants with natural organic matter in water, Which is known to be carcinogenic. The Japan Ministry of Health revised the inspection method for HAAs, which led to expansion of the analytical technique to include LC/MS/MS) as an alternative to the GC-MS method.

PDF 1 MB
Rapid Determination of Trace Amounts of Aniline and Its Derivatives by Direct Injection UHPLC/MS/MS

Aniline and aniline derivatives are widely used as raw materials and intermediates in the polymer, rubber, dye, pesticide and pharmaceutical industries. Unintended releases of aniliane or its derivatives into the environment pose a serious threat, with release possible during any stage of production, storage, transport, use, or disposal. Therefore, it is important and necessary to develop fast, simple, sensitive, selective and efficient methods for the determination of aniline and its derivatives in drinking and environmental waters. The aim of this study is to develop an LC/MS/MS method for rapid analysis of aniline and its derivatives in water samples by direct injection, without using time consuming sample preparation steps.

PDF 587 KB
Rapid LC/MS/MS Method for Analysis of Vitamin E Acetate in Cannabis Vape Samples

Cartridges containing cannabis extract or CBD are some of the cannabis industry’s fastest-growing major product categories. It is imperative that the composition of these products is understood to ensure that components in the product do not contribute to e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Vitamin E acetate, often used as a thickening agent in the production of vape oils obtained in the illicit market, has been suggested to be a cause for EVALI.

In this application note, an LC/MS/MS method for the determination of vitamin E acetate (tocopherol acetate) in vape oil cartridges is presented. The method, which quantifies vitamin E acetate in less than three minutes utilizing a QSight® 420 triple quadrupole system, addresses the diversity and complexity of the cannabis and CBD matrix which have historically resulted in interferences that prevent rapid and accurate analysis.

PDF 1 MB
Simple and Sensitive Method for Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wine by LC/ MS Using QSight Technology

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi species found in soil and organic matter, and is one of the most widely reported of the nearly 400 recognized mycotoxin contaminants of agricultural products. OTA can enter the human food chain through contaminated feed, primarily cereal-based, that is ingested by animals that are farmed for human consumption. OTA can also be found in wine owing to contamination of grapes by some species of Aspergillus, in particular, the strains of A. carbonarius and A. niger.

In this work, a rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of the extent to which OTA residues contaminate wine is presented. Utilizing a QSight 220 with both ESI and APCI ionization sources, OTA is detected and quantified in both red and white wine samples at two concentration levels - 0.5 and 2 µg/L.

PDF 924 KB
Simultaneous Detection of Estrogenic and Progestogenic Hormones in Edible Bird's Nest

This application note presents a sensitive and reliable LC/MS/MS method using the PerkinElmer QSight

PDF 859 KB
Simultaneous Determination of Pesticides Residues and Illegal Additives in Wine

Wine can often contain pesticides and fungicides that have been sprayed on the fruits during their growing period. In addition to these contaminants, wine can also contain additives that have been deliberately added during production processes to improve its flavor and color. In this study, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and applied for the determination of both pesticides and pigments in a single analytical run.

PDF 1006 KB
Simultaneous Determination of Plant Growth Regulators in Bean Sprouts

A simple and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of plant growth regulators

PDF 2 MB
“No Dilute” Just Shoot: Robustness of a QSight LC-ESI-MS/MS for Low Level Pesticide Residue Analysis in Wine

In this study, the QSight LC-MS/MS system was used to evaluate the potential of eliminating sample preparation for trace level pesticide analysis in a complex sample such as wine. We injected undiluted red and white wine samples into the mass spectrometer and studied reproducibility in analysis of the spiked pesticides over 200 injections. The instrument showed excellent reproducibility with minimal signal drift during the duration of the study (over a week), confirming the robustness of the QSight mass spectrometer.

PDF 962 KB

Brochure

Cannabis Testing Solutions Brochure

Whether your lab is well established or just starting up, having a single-source partner who can offer turnkey solutions that meet the current regulations is essential to a successful business. For years, we’ve worked with government and contract cannabis laboratories to develop industry-leading methods, technology, and exceptional return on investment. We help drive analytical standards and commit to ensuring your laboratory has maximum uptime. Learn about our various testing methods and applications for cannabis analyses. Let us work with you to build an efficient workflow, so you can focus on growing your business and brand.

PDF 9 MB
Complete Aflatoxin M1 Testing Solutions

For third party food testing labs or producers who want to conduct aflatoxin M1 analysis in dairy products, our automated aflatoxin M1 ELISA assay and QSight LC/MS/MS aflatoxin M1 analyzer provide sensitive, accurate, and fit for purpose screening and confirmative analysis solutions that you can use out of box.

PDF 3 MB
Grain Testing Solutions Brochure

The grain industry is very complex. It’s global, diverse, and can also present analytical challenges. Today’s grain users demand more when it comes to quality, safety, and uniformity. In addition, they seek diverse products with unique characteristics.

PerkinElmer is equipped to help the grain industry in its quest to feed the world – nutritiously and economically. Our testing and analysis solutions encompass the three primary areas required for complete knowledge of grains and their derivatives – composition, functionality, and safety.

PDF 6 MB
Meat and Seafood Testing Solutions

Food testing labs like yours are constantly challenged with accurately analyzing samples quickly and efficiently - all while striving to reduce costs due to market forces. Your commitment to ensuring meat and seafood are safe for consumption, as demand increases, is an uphill battle.

Our commitment to you: to provide a range of solutions across multiple technologies, products, and services that meets or exceeds the testing needs of food processors. Our solutions offer more efficiency and increased accuracy and sensitivity for better yields in real time with minimal training.

From instrumentation and software to consumables and reagents to service and support, we are dedicated to providing you with end-to-end solutions that ease your everyday challenges of automation, throughput, service, and time to results.

PDF 6 MB
QSight Pesticides Analyzer Brochure

Pesticides can adversely affect human health through the food we consume but can also leach into soil and groundwater and impact us through the environment. To keep up with a complex and constantly changing regulatory environment, your pesticide analysis solution needs to keep up with your burgeoning sample load.

PDF 9 MB
QSight Triple Quad LCMSMS 400 Series Interactive Brochure

Our QSight triple quad LC/MS/MS family has always been known for its robust and reliable performance. But now there’s something new – something better: the high performance 400 series. Our ready-to-implement solution has the highest sensitivity and throughput the industry has ever seen and the capability to test for the most challenging samples and analytes.

PDF 6 MB
QSight Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS

Whether you’re a lab manager or a bench chemist, you know firsthand how things are changing quickly in food and environmental analysis. And your lab needs to change to keep pace.

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Catalog

2020-2021 Chromatography Consumables Interactive Catalog

Today’s advanced and increasingly diverse chromatography laboratories are facing new challenges on a daily basis – starting from raw materials right up to the finished product. Our comprehensive portfolio of analytical solutions is designed to give you the higher accuracy, sensitivity, and ease of use your laboratory demands for examining with confidence, the purity, composition, and performance of your compounds. What’s more, a range of complementary services is available to keep your laboratory up and running, meeting the stringent requirements of a variety of environments and working practices.

Trust the consumables engineered for your instruments.

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Flyer

LC 300 & Quasar LC Columns Promotional Flyer

Whatever your separation challenge, your choice of liquid chromatography (LC) column can make all the difference. Our Quasar portfolio of LC columns combined with the improved work? Workflow and usability of the LC 300 system allows you to achieve rugged and reproducible results. Now, with the purchase of an LC 300 system, you can pick out a Quasar LC column free of charge. Learn more below.

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QSight Triple Quad LCMSMS Series 400 Flyer

Our QSight triple quad LC/MS/MS family has always been known for its robust and reliable performance. But now there’s something new – something better: the high performance 400 series.

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Product Note

PDF 890 KB
QSight Simplicity 3Q Software Suite

Our modular Simplicity 3Q™ software is ideal for acquiring, quantifying and reporting

PDF 1 MB
QSight Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS Preparing Your Lab

Lab reequirements for QSight triple quad LC/MS/MS systems, including storage, suppleis, space, electrical, power, gas supply requirements

PDF 660 KB

Regulatory Compliance Certification

QSight 110 & 120 Product Certificate

Product Certificate for the QSight 110 & 120

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QSight 210 & 220 Product Certificate

Product Certificate for the QSight 210 & 220

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Technical Note

Flow Characteristics of a Laminar Flow Interface for LC/MS/MS

Simulation using sophisticated modeling techniques has become a powerful tool for mass spectrometry

PDF 1 MB
Ion Transmission Through a Quadrupole Ion Guide

Ion Transmission Through a Quadrupole Ion Guide Under the Combined Influence of Viscous Flow and RF

PDF 1 MB
Theoretical Studies of Swirling Flow and Heating Methods

Theoretical Studies of Swirling Flow and Heating Methods on Droplet Evaporation in a Heated Coaxial

PDF 503 KB