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  • Application Note

    Pharmaceutical Assay and Multicomponent Analysis using the LAMBDA 365 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer

    Combination drugs containing Paracetamol and Aspirin are widely used analgesics with anti-inflammatory properties for treatment of migraines. UV/Vis spectrometry is a fast and commonly used technique in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of purity and quantity of components within various stages of a product’s manufacture in many industries. This application describes the efficient use of the LAMBDA 365 UV/Vis spectrometer in determining the quantity and percent assay of Paracetamol according to U.S. Pharmacopeia’s (USP) methods, and component concentration in pharmaceutical formulations, while achieving 21 CFR Part 11 compliance.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV/Visible Spectrophotometers: Formaldehyde Determination

    In this application, the quantitative analysis of formaldehyde was successfully executed using the LAMBDA 265 UV/Vis spectrophotometer and Merck Spectroquant formaldehyde cell test kit. Principle Formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in sulphuric solution to form a violet dye which can be detected photometrically at 565 nm. The formaldehyde cell test kit is appropriate for the concentration range of 0.10 to 8.00 mg/L formaldehyde allowing the concentration of formaldehyde in a water sample to be determined without the use of a calibration curve by multiplying the measured absorbance at 565 nm by a known factor.

  • Technical Note

    Full-Spectrum, Angle-Resolved Reflectance and Transmittance of Optical Coatings Using the LAMBDA 1050+ UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with the ARTA Accessory

    We evaluated a 3M® visible mirror film for potential use in a new curved photovoltaic module using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer with an ARTA accessory. In this application, the 3M® film must transmit near-infrared photons to the underlying silicon solar cells (where they will be converted directly to electricity) while reflecting visible photons to the focus of the module where they may be absorbed by, for example a wavelength-agnostic thermal absorber used to drive a heat engine.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis using LAMBDA: Total Phosphorus (T-P), Ascorbic Acid Method

    Principle Total phosphoric compounds in water sample is changed to phosphate (PO4 -) form by oxidation. After treatment with ammonium molybdate • ascorbic acid solution, blue color is created. This color is measured at 880 nm. In this application note, the quantitative analysis of total phosphorus (T-P) was performed by as-corbic acid method. Data are rapidly acquired using LAMBDA™ 465 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and processed using UV Lab™ Software.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis using LAMBDA Spectrophotometer: Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3-N), Brucine Method

    When a water sample containing nitrate ions is treated with brucine in sulfuric acid condition, a yellow compound is created. The quantity of nitrate nitrogen can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the yellow compound at 410 nm. In this application note, the quantitative analysis of Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) was performed by Brucine method. Data was rapidly acquired using the LAMBDA™ 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and processed using the UV Lab™ Software.

  • Technical Note

    Particle Characterization of UV Blocking Sunscreens and Cosmetics Using UV/Visible Spectroscopy

    Many cosmetic products now incorporate sunblock components to protect the skin from harmful ultra violet radiation. These products can be identified by the SPF value quoted on the label. A large proportion of these blocking components are nanoparticles that protect the skin, not by absorbing the harmful radiation, but by scattering it away from the skin. The most commonly used are nanoparticles of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. This paper will discuss a new method for characterization and quantitation of nanoparticles in sunscreens and cosmetics via the use of UV/Visible spectroscopy. The method utilizes a 150 mm integrating sphere equipped with center mount and is able to quantitate and compare the contributions of absorbance, large particle scattering, and nanoparticle scattering.

  • Application Note

    Spectral Transmission of Pharmaceutical Containers in Accordance with USP <671>

    All medicinal products need to be protected and packaged in containers which conform to prescribed standards. The quality of pharmaceutical packaging can have a significant impact on the performance of pharmaceutical products and can reduce shelf-life if the improper packaging is used. The USP chapter, <671>, “Containers – Performance Testing” provides standards for the functional properties of packaging systems used for solid and liquid oral dosage forms for pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. This application note demonstrates the determination of spectral transmission of plastic pharmaceutical containers using the PerkinElmer LAMBDA 1050+ UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer, in accordance with USP <671>.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV-Visible Spectrophotometers: Nitrite Determination

    Nitrite, occurs naturally in the environment as an intermediate of the nitrogen cycle through microbial decomposition of organic matter. However, nitrite contains nitrogen in a reasonably unstable oxidation state and readily oxidizes to nitrate. As a result, nitrite is present at considerably lower concentrations in ground and surface waters than nitrate1. Higher concentrations of nitrite are indicative of pollution by industrial wastewater or agricultural run-off. In this application, the quantitative analysis of nitrite-nitrogen was performed using the LAMBDA™ 265 UV-Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics nitrite test kit.

  • Application Note

    Gaining high resolution measurements of optical filters in the NIR range with the LAMBDA 1050 UV/Vis/NIR

    Optical filters have many functions, including color correction, used to improve color balance in many optical systems, to neutral density filters that produce specific reduction in the level of transmitted light. The characterization of these diverse optical filter types is critical from design through manufacturing, providing validation of a specific design and the necessary means to perform QC/QA of finished products. This application note highlights PerkinElmer® LAMBDA™ 1050 for determining the best method for the analysis of specific optical filters.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV/Visible Spectrophotometers: Iron Determination

    Iron is rarely found in its elemental form in nature due to the high tendency of its ions, Fe(II) and Fe(III), to form oxygen and sulphur containing compounds. Concentrations of iron found in surface waters are typically no greater than 1 mg/L, unless contaminated by industrial effluents, whilst much higher concentrations are found in ground waters. The World Health Organization guideline for iron in drinking water is 0.3 mg/L as undesirable bacteria growth in water systems occurs above this concentration. In this application, the quantitative analysis of iron was performed using the LAMBDA 265™ UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics iron cell test kit.

  • Application Note

    High Absorbance Scanning with the PerkinElmer LAMBDA 850 UV/Vis and LAMBDA 950/1050 UV/Vis/NIR Spectrophotometers

    In materials research there is sometimes a need to scan high absorbance samples such as laser protection lenses, optical filters, and polarization materials. Such sample types often need to be measured across the whole UV, Vis and NIR ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • Application Note

    The Quantification of Oligonucleotide Using a LAMBDA 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer

    Using the LAMBDA 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and UV Lab software, quantification of the oligonucleotide was performed.The range of concentrations was 0.5 - 2.0 µM. Rapid acquirement of spectra and good sensitivity were obtained with the LAMBDA 465.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV/Visible Spectrophotometers: Ortho-Phosphate Determination

    In surface waters, phosphorus commonly exists in its phosphate form. A high concentration of phosphate in water is indicative of domestic waste, industrial effluent, and agricultural runoff which can lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication causes an increase in plant and algal growth, which decreases the dissolved oxygen in the water, often leaving the water uninhabitable to organisms. In this application, the quantitative analysis of ortho-phosphate was performed using the LAMBDA 265 UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics ortho-phosphate cell test kit.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV/Visible Spectrophotometers: Ammonia-Nitrogen Determination

    Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) occurs naturally in groundwaters at concentrations below 0.2 mg/L and up to 12 mg/L in surface waters, as a result of decomposition of organic matter. High concentrations of ammonia in surface waters are toxic to aquatic life and are indicative of contamination from industrial effluent, raw sewage and agricultural runoff. Ultimately the pH value of the water determines whether ammonia-nitrogen is found as NH4+, NH4OH or NH3. 1 In this application, the quantitative analysis of ammonia-nitrogen was performed using the LAMBDA 265™ UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics ammonia nitrogen cell test.

  • Application Note

    Determination of Cholesterol Level in Human Serum - Enzymatic Colorimetric Method

    Clinical chemistry uses chemical processes to measure levels of chemical components in the blood. It is very useful for the early diagnostic of disease and for monitoring organ function. The most common specimens used in clinical chemistry are blood and urine and this application note shows the common blood tests and measurable items using UV/Vis spectrophotometers as determined by the enzymatic method.

  • Application Note

    Measurement of Gold Nanoparticle Solutions on the LAMBDA 265

    The data shows the suitability of the LAMBDA 265 for producing rapid, high-quality spectra. It also shows that the instrument is able to measure the higher nanoparticle sizes, even though these scatter light to a greater extent due to the increased particle size and also settle out more quickly.

  • Application Note

    Monitoring Fast Chemical Reactions Application Note

    Spectrosopic techniques, such as UV-Visible spectrometry, can be deployed to observe the chemical changes taking place during fast reactions. However, in many cases the reaction timescales are too fast to be performed and observed by the simple manual mixing of the reactants in a cuvette. The stopped-flow technique is frequently used for rapid kinetics experiments allowing the reactants to mix effectively and react whilst monitoring the reaction in a low volume cuvette in the UV-Visible instrument. This application note demonstrates how the PerkinElmer LAMBDA 465 Diode Array UV-Visible Spectrophotometer together with the TgK Scientific SFA-20 Rapid Kinetics Accessory allows reaction monitoring on the millisecond timescale.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV-Visible Spectrophotometers: Chemical Oxygen Demand Determination

    Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is used as an indirect measurement of the sum of oxidizable matter in water and measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic compounds. Wastewater commonly contains organic compounds, as a result of industrial processes, which can oxidise in the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water. Low levels of dissolved oxygen can be detrimental to aquatic life but high levels may cause corrosion of metal pipes. It is important to use COD as an indicator of water quality. In this application, quantitative analysis of COD was performed using the LAMBDA 265TM UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Merck Spectroquant® COD mercury free cell test.

  • Application Note

    The Determination of Total Protein Using the LAMBDA UV/Vis Spectrophotometer: Bradford Method

    Quantification methods for total protein are among the longest-established fundamental and important experiments of bioscience. UV/Vis Spectrophotometry is widely used for the determination of protein. This application note describes a typical protein method, the Bradford method. Data is rapidly acquired using the LAMBDA™ 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and processed using the UV Lab Software.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV/Visible Spectrophotometers Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Chromium (VI) ions react with diphenylcarbazide in weakly phosphoric solution. The product, diphenylcarbazone, is a red-violet complex which can be detected photometrically at 550 nm. The chromate cell test kit is suitable for the concentration range of 0.11 – 4.46 mg/L chromate allowing the concentration of chromium(VI) in a water sample to be determined without the use of a calibration curve by multiplying the measured absorbance at 550 nm with a known factor.

  • Application Note

    Water Analysis Using LAMBDA UV-Visible Spectrophotometers: Nitrate-Nitrogen Determination

    Nitrate ions react with 2,6-dimethyl phenol (DMP) in sulfuric and phosphoric solution to form 2,6-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol (Figure 2) which can be detected spectrophotometrically at 340 nm and is directly proportional to the nitrate-nitrogen concentration. The Merck test kit allows the concentration to be determined without the use of a calibration curve by multiplying the measured absorbance at 340 nm by a known factor. In this application, the quantitative analysis of nitrate was performed using the LAMBDATM 265UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Merck Spectroquant® cell test. The method used is analogous to DIN 38405-9.