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There is a growing body of evidence showing that there are significant differences between some nanomaterials and their non-nanoscale counterparts. What those differences portend raises many new questions about their potential to cause harm to human health and the environment.
Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) occurs naturally in groundwaters at concentrations below 0.2 mg/L and up to 12 mg/L in surface waters, as a result of decomposition of organic matter. High concentrations of ammonia in surface waters are toxic to aquatic life and are indicative of contamination from industrial effluent, raw sewage and agricultural runoff. Ultimately the pH value of the water determines whether ammonia-nitrogen is found as NH4+, NH4OH or NH3. 1 In this application, the quantitative analysis of ammonia-nitrogen was performed using the LAMBDA 265™ UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics ammonia nitrogen cell test.
Quantification methods for total protein are among the longest-established fundamental and important experiments of bioscience. UV/Vis Spectrophotometry is widely used for the determination of protein. This application note describes a typical protein method, the Bradford method. Data is rapidly acquired using the LAMBDA™ 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and processed using the UV Lab Software
The efficiency of molecular manipulations involving nucleic acids is heavily dependent on the concentration and purity of the nucleic acid in a sample. The quantification of oligonucleotide is readily accomplished by taking advantage of the absorbance of UV light. Thus, UV light analysis may be used to derive information about the concentration of the sample. This application note describes the quantification of an oligonucleotide using a LAMBDA™ 465 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer.
Nitrate ions react with 2,6-dimethyl phenol (DMP) in sulfuric and phosphoric solution to form 2,6-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol (Figure 2) which can be detected spectrophotometrically at 340 nm and is directly proportional to the nitrate-nitrogen concentration. The Merck test kit allows the concentration to be determined without the use of a calibration curve by multiplying the measured absorbance at 340 nm by a known factor. In this application, the quantitative analysis of nitrate was performed using the LAMBDATM 265UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Merck Spectroquant® cell test. The method used is analogous to DIN 38405-9.
Combination drugs containing Paracetamol and Aspirin are widely used analgesics with anti-inflammatory properties for treatment of migraines. Both active ingredients have a similar mode of action, whereby they inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, by preventing the production of prostaglandins which cause pain, inflammation, and fever. UV/Vis spectrometry is a fast and commonly used technique in quality control laboratories for routine analysis of purity and quantity of components within various stages of a product’s manufacture in many industries.
UV/Vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy has evolved to a very powerful characterization tool of carbon nanotube dispersions and has thus contributed a significant share to the insights on nanotube purity, functionalization and sorting that were elaborated the past years.
In surface waters, phosphorus commonly exists in its phosphate form. A high concentration of phosphate in water is indicative of domestic waste, industrial effluent, and agricultural runoff which can lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication causes an increase in plant and algal growth, which decreases the dissolved oxygen in the water, often leaving the water uninhabitable to organisms. In this application, the quantitative analysis of ortho-phosphate was performed using the LAMBDA 265 UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics ortho-phosphate cell test kit.
The data shows the suitability of the LAMBDA 265 for producing rapid, high-quality spectra. It also shows that the instrument is able to measure the higher nanoparticle sizes, even though these scatter light to a greater extent due to the increased particle size and also settle out more quickly
Iron is rarely found in its elemental form in nature due to the high tendency of its ions, Fe(II) and Fe(III), to form oxygen and sulphur containing compounds. Concentrations of iron found in surface waters are typically no greater than 1 mg/L, unless contaminated by industrial effluents, whilst much higher concentrations are found in ground waters. The World Health Organization guideline for iron in drinking water is 0.3 mg/L as undesirable bacteria growth in water systems occurs above this concentration. In this application, the quantitative analysis of iron was performed using the LAMBDA 265™ UV/Vis spectrophotometer and CHEMetrics iron cell test kit.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is used as an indirect measurement of the sum of oxidizable matter in water and measures the equivalent amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic compounds. Wastewater commonly contains organic compounds, as a result of industrial processes, which can oxidise in the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water. Low levels of dissolved oxygen can be detrimental to aquatic life but high levels may cause corrosion of metal pipes. It is important to use COD as an indicator of water quality. In this application, quantitative analysis of COD was performed using the LAMBDA 265TM UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Merck Spectroquant® COD mercury free cell test.
Chromium (VI) ions react with diphenylcarbazide in weakly phosphoric solution. The product, diphenylcarbazone, is a red-violet complex which can be detected photometrically at 550 nm. The chromate cell test kit is suitable for the concentration range of 0.11 – 4.46 mg/L chromate allowing the concentration of chromium(VI) in a water sample to be determined without the use of a calibration curve by multiplying the measured absorbance at 550 nm with a known factor.