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This application describes an analytical method for the chromatographic separation and quantitative monitoring of seven primary cannabinoids, including THC and THC-A, in cannabis extracts by HPLC with PDA detection. Naturally occurring cannabinoids, the main biologically active component of the cannabis plant, form a complex group of closely related compounds, of which 113 are known and 70 are well described. Of these, the primary focus has been on Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), as the primary active ingredient due to its pharmacological and toxicological characteristics, upon which strict legal limits have been enforced.
Glucocorticoid steroids work by suppressing various aspects of the human immune system in conditions where hyperactivity can cause poor health through allergies, inflammation and autoimmune dysfunction. Betamethasone dipropionate belongs to this class of steroids. It is used for its high potency as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant in the treatment of diseases such as eczema, dermatitis and psoriasis. Betamethasone dipropionate is classified as a ‘super-potent’ steroid in the treatment of psoriasis in comparison with betamethasone valerate (another common analogue of betamethasone) which is rated as upper mid-strength. This application brief describes the use of a Quasar C18 column for the analysis of betamethasone dipropionate in accordance with the official USP monograph.
Cosmetics utilized to prevent skin damage from the sun’s radiation often include ingredients which can pose a risk to human health at high enough concentrations. Oxybenzone, for example, can contribute to melanoma associated with the production of DNA-attacking free radicals upon UV exposure. Parabens, utilized as an antimicrobial preservative, have been shown to have estrogenic activity, which could lead to increased risk of breast cancer. Although deemed safe by regulatory bodies such as FDA, manufacturers must monitor the concentration of these and other potentially harmful compounds in their products to ensure levels are at or below regulatory levels. This application note presents a UHPLC method with PDA detection for the analysis of parabens and other active ingredients in a variety of cosmetic products.
In 1906, English biochemist Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins also discovered that certain food factors were important to health. All the vitamins we recognise today were discovered during the early 20th century. There are two groups of vitamins, fat soluble and water soluble. Both types are regarded as essential for normal growth and our overall well being. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) and vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) are water soluble vitamins, naturally occurring in a number of food stuffs including milk and eggs. Both vitamins are used as dietary supplements and can help lower cholesterol, prevent migraines. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), as first suggested by Alpert in 1990 provides an alternative approach to effectively separate small polar compounds, on polar stationary phases, which are not well retained under reversed phase conditions. Water is the strongest solvent in HILIC and as mobile phases typically contain low levels of water the resulting methods are ideally suited for MS applications. This application brief illustrates the efficient separation of vitamin B2 and B3 applying the HILIC mode of separation using the Quasar SPP HILIC column.
Due to rising concerns over the carcinogenic properties of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in drinking water, many national and regional water standards are looking to lower the maximum allowable levels of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in potable waters. And in order to assess trace concentrations of Cr6+ in drinking water, it is necessary to have an instrument capable of measuring parts per trillion (ppt) concentrations of Cr and possessing a wide linear dynamic range – HPLC-ICP-MS is often the instrumentation of choice in such applications.
This work demonstrates an ion exchange method for the characterization of Cr6+ in potable drinking water using our NexSAR HPLC-ICP-MS Speciation Solution. Discover the advantages of the inert and metal-free fluid path of the NexSAR Inert HPLC coupled with the NexION® ICP-MS’ Universal Cell Technology™ for these types of analyses – download this application note.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been recognized as a primary source of air pollution, and are known photochemical reaction precursors which facilitate the production of tropospheric, or ground-level, ozone. Ground-level ozone can have significant impacts on human health, and contributes to climate change throughout the world. VOC emissions from stationary sources, such as ducts, stacks and exhaust funnels in factories, refineries and mines, have been identified as significant contributors to air pollution and ground-level ozone formation. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative method for the analysis of 24 polar and nonpolar VOCs was established using a PerkinElmer TurboMatrix™ ATD and a PerkinElmer Clarus® GC/MS with electron ionization (EI) source. The method is simple, sensitive and efficient to comply with regulatory requirements.
Opiates, originally derived from the opium poppy, have been used for thousands of years for both recreational and medicinal purposes.
Current trends for the analysis of the cannabinoid content in cannabis flower extracts/concentrates and commercially available fortified foods depend on liquid chromatography for potency testing and/or ensuring the label-claim accuracy in product content descriptions. This application note describes a fast and robust chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of 16 cannabinoids commonly analyzed in cannabis-centric labs, using the PerkinElmer Flexar HPLC system with a PDA detector. To further validate the performance of this method for the industry, The Emerald Test Proficiency Test (PT) for Potency was conducted. The Emerald Test™ is an Inter-Laboratory Comparison and Proficiency Test (ILC/PT) program for cannabis testing labs. The results from the PT inter-laboratory samples passed; therefore, the method meets inter-laboratory reproducibility and accuracy.
Measurement of metanephrines and normetanephrine in plasma is challenging due to the low physiological concentrations, their hydrophilic nature1, and time consuming traditional sample preparation. With use of the PerkinElmer QSight® 220 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed using the recently advanced solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent technology (“load, wash, elute”) method protocol. As a result low levels of ME and NOR are detectable in plasma with short sample preparation and LC run time. This LC-MS/MS method provides a fast, sensitive, accurate, and reproducible solution for the analysis of ME and NOR in plasma.
In this application, we describe a technique for the monitoring of six cannabinoids, including THC and CBD, in hemp seed oil by HPLC with PDA detection. Figure 1 shows the chemical structures for the six cannabinoids. In recent years, scientific knowledge regarding the composition and health benefits of edible hemp products has significantly increased. Hemp seed oil has been promoted as a good source of nutritious omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, and may be a cleaner, more sustainable alternative to fish oil.
Antibiotics are natural substances released by bacteria and fungi which are capable of killing, or inhibiting, competing microbial species. This phenomenon has long been known; but it was not until 1928 that penicillin, the first true antibiotic, was discovered by Alexander Fleming, Professor of Bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital in London. However, it was 12 years later that penicillin was isolated and developed as a medicine by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain. Since this breakthrough in therapeutic medicine, derivates of penicillin were developed with increased efficacy levels. Amoxicillin is one of several such semisynthetic penicillin’s. First discovered in the 1960’s its patent has now expired. Consequently, amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav is now marketed under many different trade names worldwide. It is commonly used in the treatment of numerous infections including pneumonia, skin infections and Lyme disease. This application brief illustrates the rapid analysis of amoxicillin using the Quasar C18 column.
Ibuprofen belongs to the class of compounds known as Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) which are used in the treatment of pain, fever and various types of inflammation. NSAIDS work by inhibiting the synthesis of a wide range of prostaglandins produced as a response to injury, strain or illness. Since its introduction in 1969, its tolerability and effectiveness have made it one of the most popularly prescribed/taken medications in the world, with over 24 million prescriptions in the U.S. alone. Ibuprofen has generic status with many manufacturers, making it a very commercially important compound. Projections have estimated a global market value of ibuprofen to be 294.4 million USD in 2020, with an estimated value of 447.6 million USD by 2026. This application brief describes the use of a Quasar C18, on both porous silica and SPP silica phases for the analysis of ibuprofen in accordance with the official USP monograph, specifically, the chromatographic purity section.
Metformin belongs to a class of drugs known as biguanides and contains the active ingredient metformin hydrochloride. Metformin oral tablets are used, in combination with diet and exercise, to treat high blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tablets are often used as monotherapy, or in combination with other anti-diabetic agents or insulin.
This application brief describes the use of a Quasar C18 column for the analysis of metformin hydrochloride RS in accordance with Dissolution Test 3 in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monograph for metformin hydrochloride tablets.
Indoxyl sulfate is one of the most extensively studied solutes that accumulates in the plasma when the kidneys fail. Originally called "indican", it was first isolated by Obermayer and Popper in 1911. High concentrations of indoxyl sulfate in blood plasma are known to be associated with the development and progression of a number of pathological conditions including chronic kidney disease and vascular disease. The scientific literature documents the use of older generation C18 columns, using type A silicas. This application brief will illustrate the application of a new generation C18 column, based on type B silica, for the analysis of indoxyl sulfate, Figure 1, as part of a research study to measure the total levels in a simulated blood serum environment.
Combination of Immunoaffinity Column with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or LC-MS/MS is a quantitative method for the detection of mycotoxins in samples such as grains, nuts, feed, dairy and more. Samples are purified by the column and then analyzed with HPLC or LC-MSMS.
Although apple juice is a healthy, and often preferred, alternative to artificially flavored and carbonated drinks for many parents to give to children, concern has been raised over the presence of arsenic within. This work demonstrates a reversed-phase ion-pairing method for the complete separation and accurate quantification of the main and most toxicologically relevant arsenic species in commercially available apple juices, using a PerkinElmer NexSAR HPLC-ICP-MS system.
Lopinavir and ritonavir are commonly prescribed as a fixed-dose combination drug therapy for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) and belong to a class of antiviral drugs known as protease inhibitors. Lopinavir by itself has insufficient bioavailability to be an effective therapy. However, ritonavir inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver known to break down lopinavir, increasing its concentration in the blood to its desired therapeutic window. Lopinavir and ritonavir treatment as a single medication is listed by the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list of essential medicines, which serves as a model of the safest and most effective medicines required by a health system. Early studies have shown promising results as a treatment against SARS-CoV-2 and further research is currently being conducted into its efficacy. This application brief describes the use of a Quasar C8 column for the analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a water soluble vitamin found in various foods including peppers, kiwifruit, oranges and kale. It is regarded as an essential nutrient to prevent scurvy, involved in the repair of tissue and also thought to lower cancer risk. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. Since it’s isolation in 1928 it was the first vitamin to be commercially produced. Today it is widely available as a dietary supplement. This application brief describes use of a Quasar biphenyl column in the analysis of vitamin C.
Levothyroxine sodium is the sodium salt of levothyroxine, a synthetic form of thyroxine (a major endogenous hormone). It is primarily used in the treatment of hypothyroidism (commonly known as an underactive thyroid), where the thyroid gland produces insufficient quantities of hormones T3 and T4. Thyroid hormones are vital within the body as they increase the metabolic rate of several cells and maintain brain function and body temperature. Lack of these vital hormones can lead to varied symptoms including depression, loss of memory and weight gain. Levothyroxine sodium is one of the most common drugs in the world, and in 2017 was the second most prescribed drug in the USA. This application brief describes the use of a Quasar cyano column for the analysis of levothyroxine sodium in accordance with the official Levothyroxine Sodium USP monograph.
The current trend in liquid chromatography is towards the achievement of higher kinetic efficiency and shorter analysis time. Different types of column packings are now available for attaining very fast and high resolution separations without changing instruments, worrying about high backpressure or compromising column longevity. In recent developments of particle technology, the use of superficially porous particles has received considerable attention. This white paper gives an overview about the theory behind the success of superficially porous particles technology and presents a summary of its latest applications.
Sulfa drugs are accredited as the first set of compounds to exhibit antibiotic properties used to prevent bacterial infections in humans. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was developed by Bayer in 1932. The subsequent years saw rapid development of antibacterial drugs and by the 1940’s sulfanilamide was widely used. Though the medicine was relatively safe, allergic reactions such as skin rashes, fever and nausea were common place. With the introduction of less-toxic derivatives and especially with the mass production of penicillin, its use declined. These short acting synthetic sulfa drugs are effective against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms and are now commonly used in veterinary medicine. Sulfathiazole administered to cattle in combination with penicillin and chlortectracyline has been shown to yield higher rates of weight gain and improved feed efficiency. This application brief illustrates the efficient separation of three sulfa drugs using the Quasar C18 HPLC column.
Our wide range of column sizes has its benefits, including:• Longevity to withstand highthroughput environments• High-efficiency separations to facilitate trace-level analysis• Good resolution and peak shapes for more effective compound separation• Analysis of increasing polar and complex analytes.
Breakfast is an important meal in providing essential nutrients to keep your energy levels up throughout the day. How do we ensure the food and beverages we consume are healthy, nutritious and safe? Following is a collection of application notes highlighting solutions that will help you identify micronutrients in milk, cereal, juice and fresh and dried fruits as well as toxic metals in tea, dairy products and apple juice to ensure safety of your breakfast foods.
Counterfeiting of pharmaceuticals and the proliferation of substandard drugs constitute a serious health risk for the world population, including both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that five to eight percent of the world’s total pharmaceutical sales are counterfeit or of dubious quality. This application note discusses the identification of counterfeit drugs based on differences in the distribution of ingredients within the product.
The composition and content of carbonates, such as dimethyl carbonate and ethyl methyl carbonate, in electrolytic solution plays an important role in the development and quality control of lithium ion batteries. Monitoring the composition and ratio of carbonates has important implications for energy density, cycle life and the safety of lithium ion batteries.
Download this application note for a reliable methodology for the determination of nine carbonates found in lithium ion battery electrolytes. Utilizing a Clarus® SQ 8 GC/MS with EI source, this method offers precise results with the recovery, linearity and detection limits required by users in the lithium ion battery industry.