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There are five classes of mammalian immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgM, and IgG. IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin and is equally distributed in blood and tissue. In mice, the IgG class is further divided into four subclasses: IgG1, IgG2a/ IgG2c (strain specific), IgG2b, and IgG3. The general immunoglobulin structure is composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy and two light chains linked together and to each other by disulfide bonds, creating a tetrameric quaternary structure. IgG is involved in response to a foreign antigen. The presence of IgG usually signifies a mature antibody response. IgG has a molecular weight of about 150 kDa, it can bind to many pathogens and also plays an important role in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Typically mouse serum and plasma samples contain about 7 to 10 mg/ml of IgG.
AlphaLISA technology allows the detection of molecules of interest in a no-wash, highly sensitive, quantitative assay. In an AlphaLISA assay, a biotinylated anti-analyte antibody binds to the Streptavidin-coated Donor beads while another anti-analyte antibody is conjugated to AlphaLISA Acceptor beads. In the presence of the analyte, the beads come into close proximity. The excitation of the Donor beads causes the release of singlet oxygen molecules that triggers a cascade of energy transfer in the Acceptor beads, resulting in a sharp peak of light emission at 615 nm.
|Assay Target Class||Antibody|
|Experimental Type||In vitro|
|Product Brand Name||AlphaLISA|
|Shipping Condition||Blue Ice|
|Unit Size||5,000 assay points|
The introduction of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the early 1970’s offered researchers a non-radiometric immunoassay platform without compromising sensitivity. Over the last 50 years scientists have made huge strides in disease research and drug discovery and a demand for greater assay throughput and sensitivity has evolved. In response, more robust immunoassays have been developed to address some of the limitations of the standard, colorimetric ELISA.
Find out about the most common limitations of traditional ELISAs and how different ELISA alternative technologies address these limitations.