The IVIS® SpectumCT preclinical in vivo imaging system expands upon the versatility of the IVIS Spectrum by offering 2D and 3D imaging capabilities but includes integrated low-dose microCT ideal for longitudinal studies. The system provides researchers with greater insights into complex biological systems by enabling simultaneous molecular and anatomical non-invasive imaging in animal models.
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The constant horizontal gantry motion and the flat panel detector provide unparalleled performance for low-dose imaging and automated optical and microCT integration. The stable revolving animal platform table rotates 360° to acquire full 3D data. Multiple animals can be scanned simultaneously while maintaining an average dose per scan at about 13mGy, with a scanning and reconstruction time of less than a minute. Optical and microCT modalities can also operate independently.
Key features include:
The IVIS SpectrumCT is an integrative platform that combines the full suite of IVIS optical features including Spectral Unmixing, 2D and 3D quantitative bioluminescence and fluorescence with fast and low dose CT imaging. The simple user interface along with automated co-registration, advanced visualization and analysis tools are driven by PerkinElmer’s market leading Living Image® software. The IVIS Spectrum CT enables longitudinal workflows to characterize disease progression and therapeutic effect throughout the complete experimental time frame with both quantitative CT and optical reconstructions. Fast imaging and the ability to image multiple animals offers the throughput required to scan large cohorts of animals quickly and draw sound conclusions from your experimental data.
|Imaging Modality||Optical Imaging, microCT Imaging|
|Optical Imaging Classification||Bioluminescence imaging, Fluorescence Imaging|
|Product Brand Name||IVIS|
Cerenkov Emission from radioisotopes in tissue,Optical imaging detects photons in the visible range of the electromagnetic,spectrum. PET and SPECT imaging instruments are sensitive to photons in the much,higher energy range of x-rays and gamma rays. While the PET and SPECT probes,which can generate Cerenkov light in tissue will continue to produce the relevant,gamma- and x-rays, visible photons will be produced from the Cerenkov emission,which the IVIS® will detect.,In beta decay emitters such as PET probes and isotopes such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I and 32P,the beta particle will travel in the tissue until it either annihilates with an electron or,loses momentum due to viscous electromagnetic forces.,It is possible that the beta (electron or positron),is relativistic, traveling faster than the speed,of light in the tissue. While it is impossible,to travel than the speed of light in a vacuum,(c), the speed of light in tissue is v = c / n,where n is the tissue index of refraction and,n = 1. Cerenkov photons will be generated,by a relativistic charged particle in a dielectric medium such as tissue.
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major reason for late stage termination of drug discovery research projects, highlighting the importance of early integration of liver safety assessment in the drug development process. A technical approach for in vivo toxicology determination was developed using Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug, to induce acute hepatocellular liver injury.
Epifluorescence (2D) imaging of superficially implanted mouse tumor xenograft models offers a fast and simple method for assessing tumor progression or response to therapy. This approach for tumor assessment requires the use of near infrared (NIR) imaging agents specific for different aspects of tumor biology, and this Application Note highlights the ease and utility of multiplex NIR fluorescence imaging to characterize the complex biology within tumors growing in a living mouse.
It’s simple: More information means more understanding,For today’s researchers in oncology, infectious diseases, inflammation, neuroscience, stem cells,and other disciplines, there’s an increasing need for in vivo imaging that enables you to visualize,multiple events simultaneously and to extract the maximum amount of information from each,subject – leading to greater biological understanding.,Multimodal imaging enables a better understanding of disease biology. By utilizing in vivo,optimized bioluminescent and fluorescent agents and radioactive probes, researchers can,measure depth, volume, concentration, and metabolic activity, providing a wealth of information,for untangling the mysteries of disease.,Coregistration allows researchers to overlay images from multiple imaging modalities, providing,more comprehensive insight into the molecular and anatomical features of a model subject.,For example, optical imaging data can be used to identify and quantify tumor burden at,the molecular level and, when integrated with microCT, provides a quantitative 3D view of,anatomical and functional readouts.,At PerkinElmer, we’ve developed industry leading imaging technology for preclinical research.,Our technology integrates 3D optical and PET modalities with microCT to provide a better,understanding of disease. And that means better monitoring of disease progression, earlier,detection of treatment efficacy, and deeper understanding of metabolic changes that take place,throughout disease development.
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major reason for late stage,termination of drug discovery research projects, so assessment is,being integrated earlier in the drug development process. Some,chemicals can produce different forms of hepatic injury in mice,including the two most common forms, cholestasis and,hepatocellular injury. Biochemical serum markers of liver damage,like alanine transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are,limited in their ability to detect both of these common forms of liver,injury and focus on plasma as an indirect measure of what is,occurring in the liver.
Cancer chemotherapy can produce severe side effects such as suppression of immune function and damage to heart muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. If serious enough, tissue injury can be a major reason for late stage termination of drug discovery research projects, so it is becoming more important to integrate safety/toxicology assessments earlier in the drug development process. There are a variety of traditional serum markers, tailored mechanistically to specific tissues, however there are no current non-invasive assessment tools that are capable of looking broadly at in situ biological changes in target and non-target tissue induced by chemical insult.
Introduction: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a wide variety of disease conditions like cancer, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and oxidative stress. Highly sensitive and specific optical probes (fluorescent, luminescent or chemiluminescent probes) are therefore required for detecting and studying the roles of different ROS in disease pathogenesis. However, very short life times of these species coupled with the presence of antioxidants in living systems make it extremely hard to detect these reactive species in vivo, especially in deep tissues. We employed the chemiluminescent properties of lanthanide acceptor beads to develop a highly sensitive probe for ROS detection by non-invasive optical imaging. In this approach when an acceptor bead comes in close proximity (200nm) to Singlet oxygen (1O2), energy is transferred from the singlet oxygen to thioxene derivatives within the acceptor bead, resulting in light production at 520-620 nm (EPRM®). The major advantages of this approach are: a. enabling detection of ROS by generating long-lived signal (half-life in seconds); b. Achieving high sensitivity due to lack of background signal and c. Generating long wavelength (620nm) signal thereby allowing deep tissue interrogations in living organisms.
Targeted cancer therapy aims to block key signaling pathways that are critical for tumor cell growth and survival. The blockage eventually results in cell death via apoptosis and eventual tumor growth suppression. This strategy has proven to be quite effective, and the FDA has approved several targeted therapeutics in the past decade. Encouraged by the success in clinical development, many academic and pharmaceutical researchers are in active pursuit of improved next generation targeted anti-cancer drugs. As a result, many new chemical and biological entities are emerging from initial screening of in vitro, in vitro and/or in silico selection processes. From the perspective of drug development, it poses a great challenge for the next stage of in vivo validation and demands a robust, accurate, and efficient method for assessment of these candidates in living animal models.
Visualization and quantification of Computed Tomography (CT) scans is ideally performed on artifact free images. Materials with a high linear attenuation coefficient, such as metal, cause significant artifacts in the reconstructed image. Unfortunately, the use of metal is unavoidable in some orthopaedic and dental models and with some animal tracking systems.,Many iterative reconstruction approaches used in the past remove metal from the sinogram before the final reconstruction. These sinograms are geometry dependent, but the algorithms have not been tested for the rotating turntable geometries used in some preclinical uCT systems. These preclinical uCT systems also have specific image processing needs to facilitate specific co-registration applications.
Targeted cancer therapy aims to block key signaling pathways that are critical for tumor cell growth and survival. The blockage eventually results in cell death via apoptosis and tumor growth suppression. Encouraged by the success in clinical development, many academic and pharmaceutical researcher are in active pursuit of the improvement of next generation targeted anti-cancer drugs. As a result, many new chemical and biological entities are emerging from initial screening of in vitro, in vitro and/or in silico selection processes. From the perspective of drug development, it poses a great challenge on the next stage of in vivo validation and demands a robust, accurate, and efficient method for assessment of these candidates in living animal models.
The IVIS® SpectrumCT expands upon the versatility,and advanced optical feature sets of the IVIS and,Maestro™ platforms integrated with low dose,microCT to support longitudinal imaging. The IVIS,SpectrumCT enables simultaneous molecular and,anatomical longitudinal studies, providing researchers,with essential insights into complex biological,systems in small animal models. The constant horizontal gantry motion and,the flat panel detector provide unparalleled performance for low-dose imaging,and automated optical and microCT integration. The stable revolving animal,platform table rotates 360° to acquire full 3D data. Multiple animals can be,scanned simultaneously while maintaining an average dose per scan at about,13mGy, with a scanning and reconstruction time of less than a minute. Optical,and microCT modalities can also operate independently.
Adaptive Fluorescence Background Subtraction Pre-clinical in vivo imaging technical note for IVIS Imaging Systems. Instrument background occurs when excitation light leaks through the emission filter. This occurs more frequently when the excitation and emission filters are narrowly separated. The ring you see is a result of non specific light reflecting off of the stage at an incident angle and passing through the filter causing what appears as leakage around the edges.
Auto-exposure technical note for IVIS pre-clinical imaging systems
Subtracting Background ROI from a Sequence
DLIT setup and acquisition IVIS pre-clinical imaging systems. Bioluminescence Tomography or Diffuse Light Imaging Tomography (DLIT) utilizes the data obtained from a filtered 2D bioluminescent sequence in combination with a surface topography to represent the bioluminescent source in a 3D space. Utilizing DLIT, you can determine the depth of sources in your animal and calculate the absolute intensity of that source.
DLIT 3 Reconstruction technical note for IVIS Spectrum imaging systems
Determine Saturation for IVIS imaging systems - technical note
FLIT - Fluorescence Tomography – Setup and Sequence Acquisition. Fluorescence Imaging Tomography (FLIT) utilizes the data obtained from a 2D transillumination fluorescence sequence in combination with a surface topography to reconstruct a fluorescent source in a 3D space. Utilizing FLIT, you can determine the depth of sources in your animal and calculate the absolute intensity of that source at depth.
Fluorescence Tomography – Source Reconstruction and Analysis - FLIT Reconstruction
Acquisition of High Resolution Images. This quick reference guide is for those researchers who wish to perform analysis that requires high resolution including in vitro studies when one may want to discern aspects about cell layers, ex vivo tissue imaging, or imaging of tissue slices. You will not need this resolution in most in vivo studies.
Not only is it possible to load multiple images as a group, for example multiple days of a longitudinal study, but it is also possible to load multiple images and Overlay them i.e. bioluminescent tumor with fluorescent targeted drug acquired in two separate images.
It is possible to copy 3D sources (voxels) from one 3D reconstruction into another. For example, superimposing DLIT or FLIT signals is easy. However, the two combined sources must be based upon the same surface topography to produce meaningful information. Therefore it is imperative that the mouse remain completely still between acquisition of the DLIT and FLIT images.
Acquiring the most accurate quantitation of your bioluminescent sources requires a close understanding of the underlying kinetics involved in producing and capturing the detected light. After injection, the substrate for your bioluminescent probe will di
For many studies, it may be desirable to open a group of images together, for example, analyzing multiple days of longitudinal study side by side using the same scale.
This guide will walk you through the steps of manually entering your sequences for the spectral unmixing procedure. The Living Image 4.3.1 software version includes an Autoexposure setting and an Imaging Wizard. For questions on how to use these two features please see the respective quick reference guide associated with these workflows. You can also find information pertaining to the use of these features in the Spectral Unmixing Wizard Setup reference guide. These features are designed to make setting up your sequences as easy as possible and we highly recommend that you take advantage of them when performing these steps.
Subject ROI using IVIS imaging systems
Transillumination is a 2D fluorescence imaging technique that utilizes an excitation light source located below the stage. Transillumination is superior to epi-illumination at detection of red-shifted, deep tissue fluorescent sources due to the transilluminator’s concentrated delivery of excitation light into the subject via a 2 mm beam and lower autofluorescence levels attained due to the position of the animal in relation to the excitation light.
In order to facilitate faster transillumination imaging, with Living Image 4, we have incorporated raster scanning capabilities. With raster scanning, the shutter remains open as the transillumination excitation source moves underneath the animal. This results in a single image and faster imaging times.,Note: This Transillumination Fluorescence – Raster Scan Tech Note was designed as a supplement to Transillumination Fluorescence Tech Note 14a. For information about setup of your 2D transillumination fluorescence sequences, please first consult that tech note.
Normalized transmission fluorescence is a technique that allows us to subtract background light leakage through thin tissue from transillumination images utilizing an extra image captured with a neutral density (ND) filter. The ND filter dampens the intensity of the halogen lamp to 1/100th of the source intensity but does not filter out specific wavelengths. Light of all wavelengths is allowed to pass through the animal and the image is collected with the emission filter of your choice.
Working with Image Math. Image Math is a rudimentary but effective method for Spectrum and Lumina users to subtract background from images without performing Spectral Unmixing.
The primary goal of preclinical imaging is to improve the odds of clinical success and reduce drug discovery and development time and costs. Advances in non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques have raised the use of animal models in drug discovery and development to a new level by enabling quick and efficient drug screening and evaluation. Read this White Paper to learn how preclinical in vivo imaging helps to ensure that smart choices are made by providing Go/No-Go decisions and de-risking drug candidates early on, significantly reducing time to the clinic and lowering costs all while maximizing biological understanding.