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In the mouse, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFa) is primarily produced as a homotrimeric 235 amino acid membrane- bound protein. The soluble mature homotrimeric form of 156 amino acids is then released by the metalloprotease TNFa converting enzyme. In humans, TNFa is produced by many cell types like macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, T cells, and NK cells. It causes cytolysis and cytostasis of many tumor cell lines in vitro. Within hours of injection, TNFa leads to the destruction of small blood vessels within malignant tumors. Although TNFa inhibits the growth of endothelial cells in vitro, it is a potent promoter of angiogenesis in vivo. In contrast to chemotherapeutic drugs, TNFa specifically attacks malignant cells. Furthermore, TNFa is associated with autoimmune disorders, and antibodies directed against TNFa have proven useful.
AlphaLISA technology allows the detection of molecules of interest in a no-wash, highly sensitive, quantitative assay. In an AlphaLISA assay, a biotinylated anti-analyte antibody binds to the Streptavidin-coated Donor beads while another anti-analyte antibody is conjugated to AlphaLISA Acceptor beads. In the presence of the analyte, the beads come into close proximity. The excitation of the Donor beads causes the release of singlet oxygen molecules that triggers a cascade of energy transfer in the Acceptor beads, resulting in a sharp peak of light emission at 615 nm.
|Assay Target Class||Cytokine|
|Experimental Type||In vitro|
|Product Brand Name||AlphaLISA|
|Shipping Condition||Blue Ice|
|Unit Size||5,000 assay points|
The introduction of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the early 1970’s offered researchers a non-radiometric immunoassay platform without compromising sensitivity. Over the last 50 years scientists have made huge strides in disease research and drug discovery and a demand for greater assay throughput and sensitivity has evolved. In response, more robust immunoassays have been developed to address some of the limitations of the standard, colorimetric ELISA.
Find out about the most common limitations of traditional ELISAs and how different ELISA alternative technologies address these limitations.
Immunoassays are a mainstay for the quantification of a variety of bio-molecular analytesin drug discovery, drug development, and life sciences research laboratories. While ELISAs have traditionally been the most popular form of immunoassay, they are limited by the need to perform multiple wash steps.
For the detection of three biomarkers in complex sample matrices, the AlphaLISA and Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay technologies were shown to have similar: Assay windows (linear dynamic range), Lower and upper detection limit, Intra-and inter-assay precision (lower % CV) The advantages of using AlphaLISA over ECL are: Shorter total assay duration No wash steps No shaking Lower sample volume requirement for equivalent performance Less expensive instrument and plates required
The AlphaLISA® assay is a homogeneous immunoassay alternative to classical ELISA. AlphaLISA assays were originally utilized to detect analytesin cell cultures upernatants or serum/plasma samples.