125I Labeling of Proteins
Iodination of proteins is a common method of adding a tracer with high specific activity to your protein of interest. Several different methods are available, and these differ in terms of the amino acids that become labeled and in the reaction conditions that are used. Use the selection tables below to help you choose the best option. You may also find it convenient to contact our OnPoint custom conjugation service for help with this procedure. One commonly-used iodination method, Bolton-Hunter, is described below in detail.
Iodine isotopes have relatively short half-lives (60 days for 125I and 8 days for 131I). In addition, iodine-labeled proteins are subject to loss of activity and physical degradation due to the isotopic decay. For these reasons, iodine-labeled proteins generally should be used as soon as possible, generally within 30 days or less after labeling.
Choosing an iodination technique
125I or 131I
High efficiency for measurement (autoradiography, gamma counting, scintillation counting)
Ka X-ray: 0.027 MeV (112.5%)
High energy gamma emissions are well suited for tissue imaging.
Gammas: 0.080 (2.6%), 0.284 (6%),
The choice of a labeling technique depends largely on the particular amino acids available for labeling in your protein or peptide, and on its stability to the reaction conditions. PerkinElmer OnPoint custom services can perform any of the iodination techniques below and consult on the best technique for your needs.
Bolton-Hunter reagent is the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of iodinated p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid. The active ester acylates terminal amino groups with the iodinated p-hydxyphenylpropionic residue, effectively introducing radioactive iodine into proteins and peptides. A non-oxidative technique, it is less harsh to proteins than alternative methods.
Conjugation of terminal amino groups. Applicable to peptides and proteins containing lysine residues. The mono-iodinated form is generally recommended for most Bolton-Hunter iodinations.
Same as mono-iodinated Bolton-Hunter Reagent
Double the specific activity (or 4400 Ci/mmol) for each molecule of reagent. Use when the extra sensitivity is important relative to decrease in stability.
Lactoperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of iodide using hydrogen peroxide as the enzyme substrate. It is a milder oxidative technique than Chloramine-T.
Applicable to peptides and proteins naturally containing tyrosine, or chemically modified to introduce tyrosine (especially applicable if they contain easily oxidized methionine)
Chloramine-T (p-toluene sulfonochloramine) is an effective method of labeling a variety of proteins and peptides. This oxidative method involves exposure of the substrate to Chloramine-T in the presence of NaI, 125I- or 131I-, for a short time and produces high specific activity proteins or peptides labeled with carrier-free radioiodine, but can be harsh.
Substitution of 125I or 131I into tyrosine residues in oxido-reducing reaction. Applicable to peptides and proteins naturally containing, or chemically modified to introduce either tyrosine or histidine.
Exchange Labeling with Sodium Iodide
Appropriate leaving groups exchange with 125I or 131I in solvents or melts. (A melt is a heated reaction performed in a solid state, without solvent.) Catalysts may improve yields and reliability as well as shorten reaction times.
Exchange aliphatic or aromatic bromide or non-radioactive iodide. Exchange aromatic amines through diazonium salts or stabilized triazenes.
A solid phase oxidative method similar to the Chloramine-T method. It is generally considered to be milder, because the reaction takes place on the surface of the oxidant, minimizing exposure to the substrate.
Iodogen is a water insoluble oxidizing agent which can react with 125I or 131I to form a highly reactive mixed halogen species. This intermediate can add radioactive iodine atoms to tyrosine or histidine side chain rings.
Other Custom Methods
Propose a specific method to PerkinElmer for review and, if feasible, we will use it to perform your radioiodination.
Iodination products and catalog numbers
General review of iodination
- Robert H. Seevers and Raymond E. Counsell, Radioiodination techniques for small organic molecules. Chem. Rev. 82, 575-590. (1982) Link
- Bolton, A. and Hunter, W. The labelling of proteins to high specific radioactivities by conjugation to a 125I-containing acylating agent. Biochem. J. 133, 529-539 (1973) Link
- Hunter, V. and Greenwood, F. Preparation of iodine-131 labelled human growth hormone of high specific activity. Nature 194, 495-496 (1962) Link
- Greenwood, F. et al. The preparation of I-131-labeled human growth hormone of high specific radioactivity. Biochem. 89, 114-123 (1963) Link
- Marchalonis, J. An enzymic method for the trace iodination of immunoglobulins and other proteins. Biochem.J. 113, 299-305(1969) Link
- Morrison, M. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination as a tool for investigation of proteins. Meth. Enzymol. 70, 214-220 (1980) Link
- Fraker, P. and Speck, J. Protein and cell membrane iodinations with a sparingly soluble chloroamide, 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3a,6a-diphrenylglycoluril. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 80, 849-857 (1978) Link
Other PerkinElmer products for labeling proteins
- 3H Sodium borohydride labeling of aldehydes, often used for glycoproteins
- 14C N-ethyl maleimide for labeling of cysteine residues in proteins and peptides
- DELFIA® Europium labeling reagents for time-resolved fluorescence assays
- LANCE® Europium labeling reagents for TR-FRET assays
Custom conjugation and custom assay development
PerkinElmer offers custom 125I and 131I radioiodination labelling services as well as custom assay development. If you are interested in having your peptide or protein iodinated please contact our custom teams: