Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) in Food Testing
In recent years, to protect the health of consumers, more meticulous monitoring of food, more rigorous regulations with lower limits of quantification (LOQs) are required.
The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS) is widely recognized as the extremely sensitive and highly specific technique of choice for the determination of food contaminants at trace levels including pesticides, veterinary drugs, natural toxins, and so-called “emerging contaminants”.
Our robust and reliable QSight® triple quad systems consistently deliver the throughput and productivity you need in your analytical testing lab. Our LC/MSMS solutions deliver the highest sensitivity and throughput the industry has ever seen and the capability to test for the most challenging, complex samples, including cannabis.
The QSight® SP50 online solid phase extraction (SPE) module facilitates sample enrichment and concentration, obviating the need for elaborate and time-consuming sample preparation procedures. SP50 offers easy and efficient switching between traditional, direct injection UHPLC analyses and fully automated online SPE with sample pre-concentration, allowing for increased throughput and cost savings.
Our QSight® LX50 UHPLC integrates seamlessly to our QSight Triple Quad LC/MSMS and its Simplicity™ software to deliver the highest levels of performance from sample handling through data collection and reporting. The system includes three key technologies that help optimize your workflow and enable high productivity.
Our modular Simpicity 3Q™ software is ideal for acquiring, quantifying and reporting QSight™ Triple Quad LC/MSMS data. It is designed for intuitive, straightforward operation and provides flexible data viewing options and powerful remote diagnostics.
The available modules (included in our Semplicity 3Q software suite) guide users through a workflow-based experience from method development through to results processing and reporting:
In apiculture, sulfonamides are the most commonly used antibiotics to treat American and European Foulbrood, a type of disease that infects bees. This application note demonstrates how QSight 200 System can provides a very sensitive and robust platform for the analysis of sulfonamides in honey.
Acrylamide is an amide-type organic compound that can be formed by cooking or processing food at elevated temperatures . We have developed a rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of acrylamide in potato chips, using a simple sample preparation procedure. The LOQ is 25 µg/kg. The QSight mass spectrometer provides a robust platform for analysis of trace acrylamide levels in compilance with European Regulation. This method can also be applied to other types of regulated matrices such as bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, and more.
It is very well known that Black pepper is a complex matrix that requires a proper extraction and clean-up method for interferences. In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective multi-residue method has been developed for analysis of over 136 pesticides in Pepper samples by coupling a modified QuEChERS extraction method with LC/MS/MS. Using time-managed- MRM™ in the QSight™ triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the optimum dwell time of multiple MRM transitions can be generated automatically for the targeted analytes. This not only saves time in method development but also improves data quality and analytical performance of instrument.
A recent recall of contaminated eggs in Europe has generated a serious health concern for fipronil poisoning. Fipronil is a highly toxic insecticide and it is used to protect crops. The U.S. EPA has classified fipronil as a group C carcinogen. In this study, we describe a fast and robust analytical method for identifying fipronil and its metabolites with the PerkinElmer QSight® 200 series LC/MS/MS triple quadrupole instrument. The results demonstrate excellent recovery, linearity and reproducibility and superior sensitivity for this method. The three-step sample preparation procedure is quick and easy, and the LC/MS/MS analysis time can be carried out within six minutes with great separation for all analytes.
Water-soluble vitamins (WSV), comprised primarily of the vitamin B complex, are essential ingredients in many foods, particularly in infant formulas. When analyzing fortified foods, this can be particularly challenging due to the wide range in concentration of vitamins, in keeping with daily allowances. This application note presents a LC-MS/MS method for the efficient, routine and robust chromatographic analysis of B-vitamins in infant formula. Eight water soluble vitamins over a wide concentration range were identified and quantified in under four minutes. The results showed excellent retention time repeatability and the method was able to detect vitamin B12 at 0.5 ppb, well below the expected level of ~2 ppb in infant formulas.
Beta-adrenergic receptor agonists (ß- agonists) are synthetic drugs utilized in the treatment of conditions such as asthma in humans, and are also used as a growth-promoting agent in food-producing animals. The use of ß- agonists in food-producing livestock has been either banned or regulated across many countries owing to human health concerns. To aid in the monitoring and detection of ß- agonists in livestock, a highly sensitive and selective analytical method has been developed, and is presented in this study. This LC/MS/MS method details the analysis of 13 ß- agonists in pork samples, and utilizes isotopically-labeled internal standards to compensate for matrix effects present in complex food matrices.
Nitrofurans are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are widely used to kill or slow down the growth of bacteria in the aquaculture industry. The use of nitrofurans and their metabolites has been restricted by a number of countries and organizations within the European Union, United States and China, due to their harmful side effects to human health, and a Minimum Required Performance Limit (MRPL) 0f 1.0 µg/kg has been set for food, animal and aquaculture products. LC/MS/MS methods have been used for the detection of nitrofuran metabolites in many studies owing to the high sensitivity, selectivity and specificity of the methods. However, nitrofuran metabolites demonstrate low ionization efficiency with the electrospray ion source used in LC/MS/MS systems. Therefore, the use of a derivatization step for nitrofuran metabolites before extraction and LC/MS/MS analysis is crucial to meet the low regulatory limits of 1.0 µg/kg in food samples. The main purpose of this work is to determine the detection limits for nitrofurans using QSight® 210 LC/MS/MS system.
Veterinary drugs are used in animal production to treat diseases, prevent infection and protect growth of animals, which helps provide quality marketplace. However the uncontrolled use may cause heavy human disease so regulatory agencies around the world have established maximum residue levels (MRLs) or tolerances of veterinary drugs in foods. Drug analysis is generally challenging, due to the complexity of sample matrices and diversity of analytes from various classes of chemical properties. In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective method has been developed for analysis of 73 veterinary drugs (covering 13 different chemical classes) in chicken samples by coupling solvent extraction method with LC/MS/MS.
A selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS method for fast identification and analysis of meat samples using three peptides specific for pork as biomarkers. . The optimized sample preparation procedure is easy to follow and can be used for analyzing raw, cooked and processed meat products. This method can selectively detect peptides from pork meat species at a threshold detection limit of 1% w/w (10 mg/g) in a variety of food products and thus the method can be useful for analysis of Halal food (or pork related food products) samples.
Analysis of glyphosate and similiar polar pesticides in oatmeal using the PerkinElmer QSight LCMSMS.
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi, and are capable of causing disease and death in both humans and animals. Sample preparation is a critical step in the successful analysis of mycotoxins in food matrices. The "dilute and shoot" approach is a quick and easy way to introduce the sample into the LC/MS/MS analysis. However, due to the complexity of food matrices, this approach will often result in irreproducible matrix effects. To overcome these problems and improve sensitivity, this application note details the use of online solid phase extraction (SPE), coupled to an LC/MS/MS system for sample enrichment.
Mycotoxins produced by fungi as toxic secondary metabolites, leave grains, maize and cereals particularly vulnerable. With this in mind, and considering that an estimated 25% of all crops show some signs of mycotoxin contamination, many countries have established regulatory guidelines for maximum mycotoxin limits in not only feed and grain, but also in processed food products.
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has become the method of choice for pesticide analysis due to its high selectivity and sensitivity as well as its suitability for a wide range of compounds in various sample matrices. 0 In this study, a fast, sensitive and selective multi- residue method has been developed for analysis of over 200 pesticides in rice samples by coupling a modified QuEChERS extraction method with LC/MS/MS. Using time-managed- MRM™ in the QSight® triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the optimum dwell time of multiple MRM transitions can be generated automatically for the targeted analytes. This not only saves time in method development but also improves data quality and analytical performance, as demonstrated in this study by the results of multi- residue pesticide analysis in rice samples.
Aflatoxin B1 is considered to be the most genotoxic of the mycotoxins, and, when ingested by cows, is converted to aflatoxin M1 which has been shown to cause liver cancer in certain animals.
In this work, we present a fast and sensitive LC/MS/MS method
The use of cannabis concentrates and CBD products (edibles, topicals, vape products, etc.) has increased in popularity as new regulation has been passed legalizing medicinal and recreational use in a number of states and provinces. Testing to ensure that pesticide and mycotoxin levels in cannabis products are below regulatory levels is critical, however, the cannabis concentrate matrix presents many analytical challenges including higher sample matrix effects and an increased concentration of cannabinoids in the sample. In this application note, an LC/MS/MS method for the analysis of 66 pesticides (including hydrophobic and chlorinated pesticides typically analyzed by GC/MS/MS) and five mycotoxins in a cannabis concentrate matrix is presented. Utilizing a QSight® 420 LC/MS/MS instrument with dual APCI and ESI sources, the analysis yielded excellent recoveries and detection limits below those specified by the state of California cannabis regulations.
Following the 2018 legalization of recreational cannabis usage in Canada, the quality and safety of cannabis products has garnered significant attention. Health Canada has developed a regulatory program mandating pesticide testing on all cannabis products. Under the program, licensed producers (LPs) of cannabis products in Canada are required to send representative samples of products to independent laboratories for pesticide screening and quantification. In this application note, a robust and reliable method for the analysis of 96 pesticides in cannabis flower by LC/MS/MS utilizing both ESI and APCI modes is presented. The method not only offers ultra-low detection limits at or below the Health Canada regulatory levels, but also offers significant efficiency gains over other available methodologies. Utilizing LC/MS/MS with both ESI and APCI modes obviates the need to perform both GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS analyses to analyze all 96 regulated pesticides, saving significant time and money for operators.
Agricultural growing of hemp products for the purposes of cannabidiol (CBD) extraction was legalized in the United States with the passing of the Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018. Since the act passed, heightened concern over the use of pesticides in hemp production has been appreciated. However, no federal guidance is currently available in the United States to standardize analytical methods for the detection and quantification of pesticide residues in hemp products. In this application note, a robust and efficient single-run LC/MS/MS method for the determination of 66 pesticides, including hydrophobic and chlorinated pesticides typically analyzed by GC/MS/MS, is presented. Utilizing a PerkinElmer QSight® 420 UHPLC with MS/MS detector and dual ESI and APCI sources, excellent recoveries in the range of 70-120% were achieved. The application note also outlines participation in an Emerald Scientific blind proficiency test, with acceptable results for all 66 pesticides.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has become the method of choice for pesticide. The state of Oregon has issued regulatory limits for 59 pesticide residues in both cannabis flower and concentrates, while other states have come up with their own lists of pesticide residues relating to medical marijuana and cannabis testing.
Testing for the levels of pesticide and mycotoxins in cannabis is important to ensure consumer safety and quality control. In this work, the PerkinElmer application development team analyzed all 66 pesticides (including very hydrophobic and chlorinated pesticides typically analyzed by GC-MS/MS) and five mycotoxins spiked in cannabis flower extracts well below the action limits specified by the state of California. A LC-MS/MS instrument was used with ESI and APCI sources and a simple solvent extraction method with excellent recoveries for all analytes in acceptable range of 70-120%.
The Grape crop is one of the most important fruit crops consumed in the world. Grapes are consumed both as fresh and as processed products, such as wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar and grape seed oil. A large variety of pesticides are used in grape production throughout its growing season to control pests and diseases in vineyards and to increase crop yield. Pesticide residue is a major concern for the stakeholders of the grape industry, due to more and more stringent regulations and safety standards in most countries.
Both pesticides and illegal additives, if present in significant levels in wine, can pose health risk to consumers. In this study, a simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method has been developed and applied for the determination of both pesticides and pigments in a single analytical run.
Glyphosate is an organophosphate herbicide that is used on crops to kill weeds and grasses. We present a study that involves direct analysis of glyphosate in wine on a mixed mode column with no sample dilution or extraction using a PerkinElmer QSight® 220 triple quadruple mass spectrometer with a patented StayClean™ source, consisting of a hot surface induced desolvation (HSID)™ interface and a Laminar Flow Ion Guide™. Both the HSID and ion guide prevent any contaminants from entering the mass spectrometer, keeping it at its highest performance level and, thereby, maintenance free.