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This paper explores the numerous challenges materials scientists and engineers face, from the time it takes to bring new materials to market to the difficulties delivering suitable formulations and testing against specified criteria, and how those can be resolved.
Optical-based in vivo imaging of vascular changes and vascular leak is an emerging modality for studying altered physiology in a variety of different cancers and inflammatory states. A number of fluorescent imaging probes that circulate with the blood, but have no target selectivity, have been used to detect tumor leakiness as an indication of abnormal tumor vasculature. Inflammation is also characterized by distinct vascular changes, including vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. This process is essential for facilitating access for appropriate cells, cytokines, and other factors to tissue sites in need of healing or protection from infection. This application note investigates the use of three fluorescent imaging probes, to detect and monitor vascular leak and inflammation in preclinical mouse breast cancer models.
Measuring the amount of metals in CNTs presents a challenge. High levels can be measured directly in the solid by several techniques, including XRF and TEM, while low-level analysis requires complete digestion of the sample prior to analysis by ICP-OES or ICP-MS.
Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin are the most widely used of platinum-based cancer chemotherapy drugs in the Western world. Cisplatin's effectiveness is due to its ability to bind to the DNA, resulting in DNA-platinum (Pt) adducts, which bend the DNA. The cells must then repair the DNA damage, otherwise DNA replication is blocked resulting in cell death. Many cancers are initially sensitive to platinum-based treatment, but patients frequently relapse with tumors displaying resistance to further cisplatin therapy.
With the potential to treat a wide range of disease, from organ damage to congenital defects, stem cell research and tissue engineering form the underlying basis of regenerative medicine. Significant advances in the science of skin regeneration, for example, have now made it possible to develop and grow artificial skin grafts in a lab for treatment of burn victims. Other therapeutic applications include the use of stem cells to treat and repair central nervous system diseases such as ischemia and cerebral palsy, cardiovascular diseases, as well as autoimmune diseases including type I diabetes.
In the textile industry, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing due to their ability to provide UV protection, increase the hydrophilic nature of fabrics, provide antibacterial characteristics, and reduce odors. This work studies the release of TiO2 NPs from various commercial textile products which do not advertise that TiO2 NPs have been added.
Learn how a phenotypic screening assay to study time-dependent effects of endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy was set up using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes. Learn how: The Opera Phenix system has been applied in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In this assay, the Opera Phenix system is 4 times faster than the previous Opera® system. Primary neuron morphology is analyzed in a straightforward approach using Harmony software. Careful assay optimization can increase throughput, and minimize the data burden, without compromising assay performance.
The promise of high-content screening is the acceleration of discovery by extracting as much relevant information as possible from cells. Nevertheless, a large percentage of high-content screens analyze only a small number of image-based properties. As a result, valuable information from precious cells and disease models is not utilized. As nearly all screening approaches require a nuclear counterstain such as Hoechst to facilitate segmentation, phenotypic profiling of the nuclei can offer new and additional perspectives on assays at no extra cost.
This work investigated the transfer of Ag and CuO nanoparticles from consumer products via simulated dermal contact by using textile wipes as a surrogate using PerkinElmer’s NexION ICP-MS single particle analyzer with the unique Syngistix Nano Application software module for data collection and analysis
Cells constantly sense their environment and their response is a spatio-temporal summation of all signals. To maintain physiological stability, cells need to adjust to environmental changes, a process called homeostasis. One of the most important processes involved in maintaining homeostasis is autophagy, and its significance was recognized by the award of the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 2016 to Yoshinori Ohsumi for the discovery of its underlying mechanisms. Although this is not fully understood, it is believed that autophagy can prevent tumor development by degrading, for example, damaged organelles and protein aggregates.
Fluorescent dyes have been used for many years to label cells for microscopy studies, and a variety of dyes in the visible fluorescence spectrum are available to label different cellular compartments and organelles. Efficient delivery of the fluorophore to the cell without excessively modifying surface proteins or perturbing cell function is the major biotechnological challenge. In addition, researchers have taken on the challenge of in vivo imaging, focusing on near infrared (NIR) dyes that fluoresce in a spectral region better suited for in vivo imaging due to reduced background and higher tissue penetration.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been of significant interest over the last two decades as they offer attractive benefits for drug delivery to overcome limitations in conventional chemotherapy. Nanoparticles can be engineered to carry both drugs and imaging probes to simultaneously detect and treat cancer. They may also be designed to specifically target diseased tissues and cells in the body. A number of nanoparticlebased cancer therapeutics have been approved for clinical use and/or are currently under development.
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