Nanomaterials Reference Library

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers [size], where unique phenomena enable novel applications. — National Nanomaterial Initiative.

PerkinElmer's analytical Instruments enable engineers and scientists to measure and better understand nanomaterials and their diverse applications.  On this page you will find some scientific papers about Nanomaterial applications (from synthesizing to end use) that illustrate PerkinElmer's contribution to this revolutionary science.

  • Application Notes

    Analysis of NIST ® Gold Nanoparticles Reference Materials Using the NexION 300 ICP-MS in Single Particle Mode
    This work demonstrates the benefits of the PerkinElmer NexION 300Q ICP-MS in Single Particle mode, which allows the differentiation between soluble and nanoparticles analyte signal, measuring nanoparticles size (if shape is known or assumed) and assessing agglomeration and/or size distribution.

    Characterizing Interaction of Nanoparticles with Organic Pollutants Using Coupling Thermal Analysis with Spectroscopic Techniques
    There are more than a thousand products claiming to contain Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP) in products ranging from clothing, cosmetics, and electronics, to biomedical, chemical, energy, environmental, food, materials and optical products. The effects of ENP on environmental and human health are strongly related to their large surface-to-mass ratio and surface properties. Although the influence of natural colloids on the environment is well documented, we have limited understanding of the fate, transport, toxicity and pollutant interactions of ENP. The tools to study these interactions are being developed.

    A Study of Aged Carbon Nanotubes by Thermogravimetric Analysis
    The introduction of consumer products and industrial products that employ carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increase the probability that CNTs will enter the environment. The way in which they react in the environment is not fully understood. This initial laboratory study compares CNTs that were subjected to of various Ultraviolet (UV) light exposures times (simulating sunlight). CNT vary in chemical structure, wall thickness, densities, and the chemical state of carbon. The structural changes and other effects of CNTs exposed to an oxidative environment are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Improved HyperDSC Method to Determine Specific Heat Capacity of Nanocomposites and Probe for High-Temperature Devitrification
    There has been tremendous interest in recent years in nanocomposites – using small scale particulate fillers – to improve the properties of thermoplastics and thermosets. For example, the effect of using such small scale filler particles is such as to toughen the plastics, reduce vapor transfer, and improve transparency. One rapid way to quantify the effect of a particular filler formulation is to measure its effect on the change in specific heat (Cp) that occurs at the glass transition (Tg).

    Coupling Flow Field Flow Fractionation to ICP-MS for the Detection and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles
    Analysis of nanomaterials should include characterization of composition as well as size. Field flow fractionation (FFF) coupled to ICP-MS provides nanoparticle sizing, detection, and composition analysis capabilities at the parts per billion (ppb) level, which is critical to environmental investigations of nanomaterials.

    Simple Method of Measuring the Band Gap Energy Value of TiO2 in the PowderForm using a UV/Vis/NIR Spectrometer
    Measuring the band gap is important in the semiconductor and nanomaterial industries. The band gap energy of insulators is large (> 4eV), but lower for semiconductors (< 3eV). The band gap properties of a semiconductor can be controlled by using different semiconductor alloys such as GaAlAs, InGaAs, and InAlAs.

    Study Rigid Amorphous Fraction in Polymer Nano-Composites by StepScan and HyperDSC
    Here, heat capacity measurement has been performed in order to detect a possible second Tg on nanocomposites of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with silicon oxide nanoparticles of different shape. StepScan™ DSC was used for determination of precise heat capacity and HyperDSC® to prevent degradation and identify devitrification of the RAF at elevated temperatures.

  • EHS & Environmental Nano applications

    AA

    Highly selective ionic liquid-based microextraction method for sensitive trace cobalt determination in environmental and biological samples
    A simple and rapid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction procedure based on an ionic liquid (IL-DLLME) was developed for selective determination of cobalt (Co) with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) detection.

    Chromium (III) and Chromium (VI) Surface Treated Galvanized Steel for Outdoor Constructions: Environmental Aspects
    The long-term degradation of chromium(III) (Zn-Cr(III)) and chromium(VI)-based (Zn-Cr(VI)) surface treatments on galvanized steel and their capacities to hinder the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion at nonsheltered urban and marine exposure conditions for 2 years are investigated.

    Chromium (III) and Chromium (VI) Surface Treated Galvanized Steel for Outdoor Constructions: Environmental Aspects
    The long-term degradation of chromium(III) (Zn-Cr(III)) and chromium(VI)-based (Zn-Cr(VI)) surface treatments on galvanized steel and their capacities to hinder the release of zinc induced by atmospheric corrosion at nonsheltered urban and marine exposure conditions for 2 years are investigated.

    EA2400

    Sorption of phenanthrene by nanosized alumina coated with sequentially extracted humic acids
    Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) to natural organic matter (NOM) is an important process that affects the transport, transformation, bioavailability, and fate of HOCs in the environment. … Furthermore, the toxicity of nano-oxides could be increased due to the adsorbed HOCs.

    FTIR

    Synthesis of glycidyl methacrylate containing diethanol amine and its binary copolymers with ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate as nano-size chelating resins…
    Synthesis of glycidyl methacrylate containing diethanol amine and its binary copolymers with ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate as nano-size chelating resins for removal of heavy metal ions One of the most important applications of chelating and functional polymers is their capability to recover metal ions from their solutions.

    Characterization and optical properties of (Gd1-x, Prx) 2O2S nano-phosphors synthesized using a novel co-precipitation method
    A novel co-precipitation method for synthesizing (Gd1-x, Prx)2O2S nano-phosphors was developed, using the commercially available Gd2O3, Pr6O11, H2SO4 and NaOH as the starting materials. This method has the advantage of controllable phosphor particle size and shape, simplicity in processing, low cost, and not involving toxic carbon disulfide or hydrogen sulfide.

    A highly sensitive and selective fluorescent Cu2+ sensor synthesized with silica nanoparticles
    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for the determination of Cu2+ was synthesized with N-(quinoline-8-yl)-2-(3-triethoxysilyl-propylamino)-acetamide (QlOEt) grafted onto the surface of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) using the reverse microemulsion method.

    Study of removal of azo dye by functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes
    Textile industries are one of the main sources of water pollution. Wastewater containing dyes present a serious environmental problem because of its high toxicity and possible accumulation in the environment. Azo dyes are the main class of dyes among all dyes.

    TGA - FTIR

    Nano-powders of Na 0.5 K 0.5 NbO 3 made by a sol–gel method
    Sodium potassium niobate (NKN) nano-particle powders were synthesised through the thermal decomposition of a sol–gel NKN precursor. Powders and gels were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

    ICP

    Adsorption Behavior of Nano Sized Sol-Gel Derived TiO 2-SiO 2 Binary Oxide in Removing Pb 2+ Metal Ions
    Nano zinc oxide (nZnO) is increasingly used in sunscreen products, with high potential of being released directly into marine environments. This study primarily aimed to characterize the aggregate size and solubility of nZnO and bulk ZnO, and to assess their toxicities towards five selected marine organisms

    Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process
    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Influence of stability on the acute toxicity of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals to Daphnia magna
    The acute toxicity of polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to Daphnia magna was investigated using 48-h exposure studies. The principal objective was to relate the toxicity of QDs to specific physical and chemical aspects of the QD. As such, two different CdSe core diameters, 2?nm QDs (green-emitting) and 5?nm QDs (red-emitting), and two different surface coatings, polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were studied.

    Sorption of Cr (VI) onto natural iron and aluminum (oxy) hydroxides: Effects of pH, ionic strength and initial concentration
    The aim of this work is to study the performances of removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by three different oxy-hydroxides: hematite, goethite and a-alumina. Batch experiments were conducted to measure the effects on adsorption of Cr(VI) of different parameters such as pH of the medium, ionic strength, and initial concentration.

    Toxicities of nano zinc oxide to five marine organisms: influences of aggregate size and ion solubility
    Nanostructure Titania-Silica (TiO2/SiO2) binary mixed oxide was synthesized using titanium tetra chloride and tetraethylorthosilicate as starting materials. The resulting powder was characterized by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), infrared spectroscopy (IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and nitrogen gas adsorption studies.

    Use of Nano Crystalline Silicotitanate for the Removal of Cs, Co and Sr from Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste
    The uptakes of Cs, Co and Sr ions onto nano crystalline silicotitanate (IONSIV® IE-911, UOP) were investigated by using batch sorbers. The nanostructured adsorbent has many advantages such as high active surface area, fast diffusion rates and lower amount needs. Equilibrium sorption characteristics of Cs, Co and Sr ions onto the sorbent were investigated.

    UV/VIS/NIR

    Challenges for physical characterization of silver nanoparticles under pristine and environmentally relevant conditions
    The reported size distribution of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is strongly affected by the underlying measurement method, agglomeration state, and dispersion conditions. A selection of AgNP materials with vendor-reported diameters ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm, various size distributions, and biocompatible capping agents including citrate, starch and polyvinylpyrrolidone were studied..

    Solar photoactivity of nano N-TiO2 from tertiary amine. Role of defects and paramagnetic species
    The photocatalytic activity was tested using a solar irradiation source with regard to two different pollutants: NOx (in the gas phase) and methylene blue (MB), deposited onto the oxide film.

  • Energy & Catalysis characterization

    Recent advances in nano precious metal catalyst research at Union Chemical Laboratories, ITRI
    This study illustrates some recent progress of nano precious metal catalyst research at Union Chemical Laboratories (UCL). Nano gold catalyst was prepared by a precipitation method, in which, HAuCl4 was precipitated onto a suspension of the iron hydroxide support, with a low calcination temperature at 453 K. The catalysts were highly active with 100% conversion achieved for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) within 10,000 ppm at ambient temperature and high space velocity up to 500,000 h_1.

  • Energy characterization

    The optical properties and technology of AuAl2 coatings. L950
    The application of thin coatings of the purple gold intermetallic compound AuAl2 provides a possible alternative to the use of this material in the bulk form. Here we explore the properties of AuAl2 coatings prepared by vacuum deposition onto heated substrates. Control of the thickness and microstructure of the deposit allowed the optical properties of the film to be tuned over a wide range.

    A Novel and Green Approach to Produce Nano- Porous Materials Zeolite A and MCM-41 from Coal Fly Ash and their Applications in Environmental Protection
    Zeolite A and MCM-41 have extensive applications in basic science, petrochemical science, energy conservation/storage, medicine, chemical sensor, air purification, environmentally benign composite structure and waste remediation. However, the use of zeolite A and MCM-41 in these areas, especially environmental remediation, are restricted due to prohibitive production cost.

  • Nano-material Applications in Foods

    ICP

    Presence and risks of nanosilica in food products
    This study uniquely describes all steps of the risk assessment process for the use of one specific nanomaterial (nanosilica) in food products. The aim was to identify gaps in essential knowledge and the difficulties and uncertainties associated with each of these steps.

    Transfer characteristics of cobalt from soil to crops in the suburban areas of Fujian Province, southeast China
    The bioavailability of cobalt and its transfer from soil to vegetables and rice were investigated. … The transfer of Co from the soils to the edible parts of the crops was lower than that of Zn, Cu and Cd, but higher than that of Pb in the same areas.

    AA

    Utilization of membrane filtration for preconcentration and determination of Cu(II) and Pb(II) in food, water and geological samples by atomic absorption spectrometry
    A method for separation–preconcentration of Cu(II) and Pb(III) ions by membrane filtration has been presented. The analyte ions were collected on acetate membrane filter as their 1-2-pyridylazo 2-naphthol (PAN) complexes. The analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Evaluation of nanocomposite packaging containing Ag and ZnO on shelf life of fresh orange juice
    Nanocomposite LDPE films containing Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. Packages prepared from the films were then filled with fresh orange juice and stored at 4 °C. Microbial stability, ascorbic acid (AA) content, browning index, color value, and sensory attributes of them were evaluated after 7, 28, and 56 days of storage.

    Chromium and iron determinations in food and herbal plant samples by atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) disk
    A pre-concentration–separation procedure has been established based on solid phase extraction of Fe(III) and Cr(III) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) disk. …  The presented method was validated by the analysis of lichen (IAEA-336), CRM025-050 Metals on soil and BCR-032 Moroccan Phosphate rock certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied to the pre-concentration and separation of iron and chromium in some food and herbal plant samples from Turkey.

    Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    The influence of phospholipids and food proteins on the size and stability of model sub-micron emulsions
    The influence of both the nature of the surfactant and surfactant concentration on the processes of droplet breakup and coalescence in the formation of decane in water sub-micron emulsions in a high-pressure homogenizer were investigated.

    Antioxidant–polysaccharide conjugates for food application by eco-friendly grafting procedure
    In the present study, catechin–alginate and catechin–inulin conjugates were obtained by adopting free radical-induced grafting procedure. In the aim to synthesize the antioxidant–polysaccharide conjugates, ascorbic acid/hydrogen peroxide redox pair was employed as water-soluble and biocompatible initiator system. The insertion of catechin onto the polymeric backbones was verified by performing FT-IR, DSC and fluorescence analyses and molecular weight distributions were analyzed by GPC. …  These  kind of systems, indeed, could be very useful in the optimization of food preservation and to help manufacturers in elaboration of new food products and packaging.

    DSC

    Preparation and characterization of a-galactosidase-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for use in foods
    The instability of enzymes used in animal and human foods has long been an important issue in food preparation and storage. Recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology have shown the great advantages of nanoparticles (NPs) in protein encapsulation and controlled release. a-Galactosidase and chitosan (CS) were chosen as models for food enzymes and coating materials, respectively.

    Nanolayer enhancement of biaxially oriented polypropylene film for increased gas barrier
    An order of magnitude improvement in the oxygen barrier of biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) films was achieved using a layer-multiplying, forced assembly process. ... Biaxial orientation at elevated temperature reduced the thickness of the melted PCL layers from the microscale to the nanoscale, which created 2-dimensional confinement for subsequent crystallization of the PCL layers. … With the very high aspect ratio lamellar crystals oriented perpendicular to the flux direction, the permeation pathway of oxygen became very tortuous and the oxygen barrier was significantly improved.

    Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites
    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR).

    TGA

    Semitransparent chitosan-TiO2 nanotubes composite film for food package applications
    Semitransparent composite films were prepared made from TiO2 nanotubes in chitosan (CS) matrix. Hydrothermally synthesized titanium nanotubes (TiNTs) were dispersed in chitosan matrix in order to produce film-forming solutions at 0.05 and 0.10% w/v. Structural, topological, optical and thermal properties of these films were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of films against Salmonellaenterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli (Gram-negatives) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) was also investigated.

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes synthesized from waste cooking palm oil
    For the first time, vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) were produced using waste cooking palm oil as green starting materials. The synthesis was carried out in a floating-catalyst thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, micro-Raman and thermogravimetric analyses, showed that the carbon nanotubes are of excellent quality, comparable to those obtained using conventional carbon sources. It is concluded that the VACNT from the reuse of waste material are suitable for applications in flat panel displays and flat lamps.

    UV-VIS-NIR

    Characterization and Stability Analysis of Zinc Oxide Nanoencapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has health benefits, including being an anticancer agent, but it decreases flavor due to volatiles from oxidation. To improve the stability of CLA for food applications, nanoencapsulated CLA was synthesized for use in zinc basic salt (ZBS) and characterized

    Charge reversal by salt-induced aggregation in aqueous lactoferrin solutions
    We have observed salt-induced aggregation in lactoferrin solutions using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Aggregates start to form once the ionic strength exceeds 10 mM, and are of opposite charge to their monomer building blocks. … These results suggest that negatively charged lactoferrin aggregates adsorb only onto positively charged surfaces, whereas isolated lactoferrin molecules are sufficiently amphiphilic and adsorb at surfaces of either charge, although without producing a charge inversion effect.

    Sucrose ester micellar-mediated synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and the antibacterial properties
    Ag nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 10–25 nm had been synthesized using a simple sucrose ester micellar-mediated method.  … The produced Ag nanoparticles were highly stable in the sucrose ester micellar system as there was no precipitation after 6 months of storage. This work provides a simple and "green" method for the synthesis of highly stable Ag nanoparticles in aqueous solution with promising antibacterial property.

    FTIR

    Comparison of the catalytic efficiency of synthesized nano tin oxide particles and various catalysts for the pyrolysis of hazelnut shell
    In order to compare the catalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized nano tin oxide particles with that of red mud (byproduct of Aluminum factory), HZSM5, K2CO3, the hazelnut shell was subjected to pyrolysis in the presence of these catalysts. The nano SnO2 particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The characterization results indicate that nano SnO2 particles with 3–4 nm were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method.

    Nanostructured zinc oxide platform for mycotoxin detection
    Nanostructured zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO) film has been deposited onto indium–tin–oxide (ITO) glass plate for co-immobilization of rabbit-immunoglubin antibodies (r-IgGs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for ochratoxin-A (OTA) detection. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal the formation of Nano-ZnO with average particle size as ~5.0 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques have been used to characterize Nano-ZnO/ITO electrode and BSA/r-IgGs/Nano-ZnO/ITO immunoelectrode.

    Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared via non-hydrolytic solution route
    The antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles has been investigated and presented in this paper.  …  Our investigation reveals that the lowest concentration of ZnO-NPs solution inhibiting the growth of microbial strain is found to be 5 µg/ml for K. pneumoniae, whereas for E. coli, S. aureus, and S. typhimurium, it was calculated to be 15 µg/ml. The diameter of each ZnO-NPs lies between "20 and 30 nm" as observed from FESEM and transmission electron microscopy images. The composition of synthesized material was analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and it shows the band of ZnO at 441 cm-1. Additionally, on the basis of morphological and chemical observations, the chemical reaction mechanism of ZnO-NPs was also proposed.

  • Nano-biotechnology characterization

    Fluoroimmunoassay for Antigen Based on Fluorescence Quenching Signal of Gold Nanoparticles
    A unique, sensitive, and highly specific fluoroimmunoassay system for antigen detection using gold and magnetic nanoparticles has been developed. The assay is based on the fluorescence quenching of fluorescein isothiocyanate caused by gold nanoparticles coated with monoclonal antibody. To demonstrate its analytical capabilities, the magnetic nanoparticles were coated with anti-a-fetoprotein polyclonal antibodies, which specifically bound with a-fetoprotein.

  • Nano-electronics characterization

    Understanding the nature of electronic effective mass in double-doped SrTiO3.
    We present an approach to tune the effective mass in an oxide semiconductor by a double doping mechanism. We demonstrate this in a model oxide system Sr1-xLaxTiO3-_, where we can tune the effective mass ranging from 6–20me as a function of filling or carrier concentration and the scattering mechanism, which are dependent on the chosen lanthanum and oxygen vacancy concentrations.

    Tip-enhanced near-field Raman spectroscopy probing single dye-sensitized TiO nanoparticles
    The correlated metallic tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was used to characterize dye-sensitized titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. We have obtained the near-field Raman spectra that are associated with the photo-induced charge transfer reaction in Ru(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2-sensitized TiO2 single nanoparticles.

  • Nanopharmaceutical Library

    DSC

    Preparation and Evaluation of a New Nano Pharmaceutical Excipients and Drug Delivery System Based in Polyvinylpyrrolidone and Silicate The aim of this work is to prepare new nanocomposites [tablets]based on a lamellar silicate alkyl ammonium montmorillonite (AAM) obtained by the intercalation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) and glyceril monostearate (GME). Results. AAM showed a good compactability and compressibility characteristics for tablets preparation.

    Mucoadhesive Nanoparticles as Carrier Systems for Prolonged Ocular Delivery of Gatifloxacin/Prednisolone Bitherapy A fluoroquinolone/glucocorticoid combination for the treatment of bacterial keratitis in the form of mucoadhesive nanoparticle suspensions was developed to prolong the release and improve patient compliance. Gatifloxacin/prednisolone loaded nanoparticles were prepared using Eudragit RS 100 and RL 100 and coated with the bioadhesive polymer, hyaluronic acid. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed no interaction between gatifloxacin and prednisolone. The effects of the drug:polymer ratio (D:P) and the RS/RL ratio were studied. The resulting nanoparticle suspension is promising in reducing dose frequency and improving patient compliance.

    Preparation and Evaluation of a New Nano Pharmaceutical Excipients and Drug Delivery System Based in Polyvinylpyrrolidone and Silicate The aim of this work is to prepare new nanocomposites [tablets]based on a lamellar silicate alkyl ammonium montmorillonite (AAM) obtained by the intercalation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) and glyceril monostearate (GME). Results. AAM showed a good compactability and compressibility characteristics for tablets preparation.

    Controlled Assembly of Biodegradable Plasmonic Nanoclusters for Near-Infrared Imaging and Therapeutic Applications Metal nanoparticles with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the near-infrared region (NIR) are of great interest for imaging and therapy… a flexible platform for the kinetically controlled assembly of sub-5 nm ligand-coated gold particles to produce metal/polymer biodegradable nanoclusters smaller than 100 nm with strong NIR absorbance for multimodal application. This synthesis of polymer/inorganic nanoclusters combines the imaging contrast and therapeutic capabilities afforded by the NIR-active nanoparticle assembly with the biodegradability of a polymer stabilizer.

    UV-VIS-NIR

    Novel Solvent-Free Methods for Fabrication of Nano- and Microsphere Drug Delivery Systems from Functional Biodegradable Polymers Cholic acid functionalized branched poly-e-caprolactones with different molecular weights were synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of e-caprolactone initiated by cholic acid with hydroxyl groups. On the basis of the specific physicochemical properties of the functional branched poly-e-caprolactones, nano- and microsphere drug delivery systems were fabricated through a "melting ultrasonic dispersion method" and a "melting emulsion method", respectively… The in vitro drug release behaviors of these drug release systems were investigated.

    Polyelectrolyte complex optimization for macrophage delivery of redox enzyme nanoparticles We posit that cell-mediated drug delivery can improve transport of therapeutic enzymes to the brain and decrease inflammation and neurodegeneration seen during Parkinson's disease. We examined relationships between the composition and structure of block ionomer complexes with a range of block copolymers, their physicochemical characteristics, and loading, release and catalase enzymatic activity in bone marrow-derived macrophages… Nanozymes with polyethyleneimine- and poly(L-lysine)10–poly(ethylene glycol) provided the best protection of enzymatic activity for cell-mediated drug delivery.

    Development of a liposomal nanodelivery system for nevirapine The treatment of AIDS remains a serious challenge owing to high genetic variation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)… We have evaluated a liposome system for the delivery of nevirapine, a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.Liposomes were prepared from egg phospholipids using thin film hydration… We propose that nevirapine-loaded liposomal formulations reported here could improve targeted delivery of the anti-retroviral drugs to select compartments and cells and alleviate systemic toxic side effects as a consequence.

    A Composite Polyelectrolytic Matrix for Controlled Oral Drug Delivery The purpose of this study was to formulate drug-loaded polyelectrolyte matrices constituting blends of pectin, chitosan (CHT) and hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAAm) for controlling the premature solvation of the polymers and modulating drug release. The model drug employed was the highly water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine HCl (DPH)… This revealed the release-modulating capability of each matrix signifying their applicability in controlled oral drug delivery applications.

    Fluorescence

    Novel 'Nano in Nano' Composites for Sustained Drug Delivery: Biodegradable Nanoparticles Encapsulated into Nanofiber Non-Wovens Novel 'nano in nano' composites consisting of biodegradable polymer nanoparticles incorporated into polymer nanofibers may efficiently modulate drug delivery.

    Synthesis of gold nanoclusters: a fluorescent marker for water-soluble TiO2 nanotubes The first example of a water-soluble wrapped titania nanotube (TNT) decorated with fluorescent gold nanoparticles has been prepared. Gold nanoparticles ~ 1.6 nm in diameter were grown on the TiO2 nanotubes using a thiolactic acid linker to control the size.

    Blood Compatible Graphene/Heparin Conjugate through Noncovalent Chemistry Blood compatible graphene/heparin conjugate is simply formulated through noncovalent interaction between chemically reduced graphene and heparin. Charge repulsion of negatively charged heparin on graphene plates renders hydrophobic graphene to be solublized in aqueous media without any precipitation or aggregation even after 6 months.

    Utilization of micelles formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) block copolymers as nanocarriers to enable hydrophobic red two-photon absorbing emitters for cells imaging A hydrophobic two-photon absorbing (2PA) red emitter (R) was successfully incorporated into micelles formed from two block copolymers, poly(e-caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)s, for imaging and toxicity studies… This is the first reported application of a hydrophobic 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-containing 2PA red emitter delivered into the cytoplasm of cells for bioimaging and toxicity assessment.

    FTIR

    Treatment of Parkinson's disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system Parkinson's disease is an illness of the central nervous system that leads to severe impairment of motor skills and difficulty in controlling body movements. The characteristic symptoms are tremor, rigidity, slowed body movements (bradykinesia), unstable posture, and difficulty in walking. Parkinson's disease is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain, leading to a massive loss of dopamine in the striatum.

    Montmorillonite-Alginate Nanocomposites as a Drug Delivery System: Intercalation and In Vitro Release of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6 Sustained intestinal delivery of thiamine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 1; VB1) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6; VB6) seems to be a feasible alternative to existing therapy. …alginate nanocomposite beads were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TGA and SEM. In vitro release experiments revealed that the VB1/VB 6 releases suddenly from VB1/VB6-MMT hybrid and is pH dependent.

    Development of novel chitin/nanosilver composite scaffolds for wound dressing applications Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is one of the major problems faced in the field of wound care and management resulting in complications like infection and delayed wound healing. Recently silver nanoparticles have come up as a potent antimicrobial agent and are finding diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings to silver coated medical devices. These results suggested that these chitin/nanosilver composite scaffolds could be used for wound healing applications.

    ICP-MS

    Assessment of gold nanoparticles as a size-dependent vaccine carrier for enhancing the antibody response against synthetic foot-and-mouth disease virus peptide To assess the ability of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) to act as a size-dependent carrier, a synthetic peptide resembling foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) protein was conjugated to GNPs ranging from 2 to 50 nm in diameter (2, 5, 8, 12, 17, 37, and 50 nm). An extra cysteine was added to the C-terminus of the FMDV peptide (pFMDV) to ensure maximal conjugation to the GNPs, which have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups. … Furthermore, we established that GNPs ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter may be ideal for eliciting a focused antibody response against a synthetic pFMDV peptide.

    Preferential tumour accumulation of gold nanoparticles, visualised by magnetic resonance imaging: Radiosensitisation studies in vivo and in vitro To investigate the radiosensitisation of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with an average diameter of 5 nm coated with the gadolinium chelating agent dithiolated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic gadolinium (Au@DTDTPA:Gd) in vitro and in mice bearing tumours (MC7-L1). … When compared to positive results obtained by others on radiosensitisation by GNP, the present study suggests that the chemotherapeutic and radiosensitising properties of GNP may depend strongly on the nature of the coating.

    AA

    Albumin-based nanoparticles as magnetic resonance contrast agents: I. Concept, first syntheses and characterization To develop a platform for molecular magnetic resonance imaging, we prepared gadolinium-bearing albumin-polylactic acid nanoparticles in the size range 20–40 nm diameter. … These nanoparticles provide a platform for further development, based on non-toxic materials of low immunogenicity already in clinical use, not expensive, and synthesized using methods which can be upscaled for industrial production.

    LC

    TiO2 nano- and micro-particles in commercial foundation creams: Field Flow-Fractionation techniques together with ICP-AES and SQW Voltammetry for their characterization A procedure to determine the presence of nano- or micro- TiO2 particles in commercial cosmetic formulations, which may have a daily use, is proposed.

    The C60-Fullerene Porphyrin Adducts for Prevention of the Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rat Myocardial Cells This is a fullerene-based low toxic nanocationite designed for targeted delivery of the paramagnetic stable isotope of magnesium to the doxorubicin (DXR)-induced damaged heart muscle providing a prominent effect close to about 80% recovery of the tissue hypoxia symptoms in less than 24 hrs after a single injection (0.03 - 0.1 LD50).

    Carbon nanotubes for transdermal drug delivery In this study, drug carrier properties through skin and penetration enhancement effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are presented. Multi-walled and double-walled carbon nanotubes were used. … The electroconductive nature of CNTs allows easy application of iontophoresis and the additional advantage of CNTs appears to be using them as electrodes.

  • Nano Sample Preparation Library

    Carbon Nanotube (CTNs)Sample Preparation
    Harmonized sample pre-treatment is an essential first step in ensuring quality of measurements as regards repeatability, inter-laboratory reproducibility and commutability. The development of standard preparation methods for single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) samples is therefore essential to progress in their investigation and eventual commercialization. Here, descriptions of sample preparation and pre-treatment for the physicochemical characterization of SWCNTs are provided. Analytical methods of these protocols include scanning electron microscopy (dry, wet), transmission electron microscopy (dry, wet), atomic force microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, Raman spectroscopy (dry, wet), UV–Vis–NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, manometric isothermal gas adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis. Although sample preparation refers to these specific methods, application to other methods for measurement and characterization of SWCNTs can be envisioned.

  • Optics characterization

    Designing functionalities into photonic A few examples of the techniques of building functionalities, such as resonators and waveguides, into self-assembled photonic crystals are presented

    Nanocomposites containing embedded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and rhodamine 6G Bifunctional nanocomposites possessing superparamagnetism and traceability with optical methods were prepared. The superparamagnetic properties were achieved by introducing highly concentrated, ca. 13 nm-sized maghemite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles into a silica matrix based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE). Traceability was attained by simultaneously incorporating a small amount of rhodamine 6G fluorescent dye into the same silica matrix.

  • Petrochemical-Nanomaterial Abstracts

    AA
    Kinetics and equilibrium studies of Pb2+ in removal from aqueous solutions by use of nano-silversol-coated activated carbon
    The ability of nano-silversol-coated activated carbon (NSSCAC) to adsorb Pb2+ from aqueous solution has been investigated through batch experiments. The adsorption of lead onto NSSCAC has been found to depend on adsorbent dose, initial concentration and contact time.

    Recovery of platinum from spent catalysts by liquid–liquid extraction in chloride medium
    The petroleum and petrochemical industries produce considerable amounts of spent catalysts containing platinum…This work examines a hydrometallurgical route for processing spent commercial catalysts (Pt and PtSnIn/A2O3) used in Brazilian refineries for recovery of the noble metal with less final wastes generation.

    ICP-MS
    Effect of Rh promoter on MWCNT-supported alkali-modified MoS2 catalysts for higher alcohols synthesis from CO hydrogenation
    The promotional effects of Rh (0 to 2 wt%) on Mo-K/MWCNT catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis from synthesis gas (molar ratio of H2 to Co is equal to 1) were examined. The maximum total alcohol yield of 0.211 g/(g of cat./h), and ethanol selectivity of 16% were observed on the catalyst with 1.5 wt% Rh at 320 °C and 8.3 MPa.

    DSC
    Polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds: Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo biological responses of human primary bone cells
    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a synthetic biodegradable polymer that has been approved for use as bone graft substitutes. In this study, PCL scaffolds incorporating hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles were fabricated by combined solvent casting and particulate leaching techniques

    Investigation of the Gas Barrier Properties of PP/Clay Nanocomposite Films with EVA as a Compatibiliser Prepared by the Melt Intercalation Method 
    In this research, polypropylene (PP) nanocomposite films were prepared by melt intercalation method and their properties have been evaluated. To facilitate the formation of either intercalated or exfoliated nanocomposites, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was used as a compatibiliser. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement indicated a decrease in crystallinity, melting point and crystallization temperature. Also, permeability tests showed that gas barrier properties of PP/EVA nanocomposite films against oxygen can be significantly improved by increasing of organoclay content even at low concentration.

    Fractionated crystallization and self-nucleation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) in its miscible blends with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate
    The fractionated crystallization and self-nucleation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) component in the miscible PEO/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) binary blends were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) under different crystallization conditions. The distribution of PEO component in the PEO/PHB blend greatly influences its fractionated crystallization behavior.

    Polystyrene/CaCO3 composites with different CaCO3 radius and different nano-CaCO3 content—structure and properties
    The difference between the measured specific volume (?) and the theoretically calculated specific volume (?mix), ?? = ?-?mix, can reflect the densification of the composites. It is clearly demonstrated that the PS composites become more condensed with the reduction of the CaCO3 particle size. Especially, when the content for nano-CaCO3 achieves 2 wt%, the ?? value of the composites reaches the least, which shows the best densification. Meanwhile, the glass transition temperature (Tg) reaches the maximum value of about 100°C by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), which indirectly reveals the composites microstructure more condensed.

    Synthesis and characterization of novel nano-size polyreactive yellow 107
    The reactive yellow 107 was polymerized by chemical oxidation method using potassium persulfate…  The thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed good thermal stability of the polymer.

    TGA
    Polymer nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for semiconducting layers of high-voltage power cables
    Polymer nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been newly introduced for semiconducting layers of high-voltage electrical power cables. Their mechanical, thermal and electrical properties were investigated depending on the type of polymer. By changing the polymer matrix, the volume resistance of the MWCNT-reinforced polymer nanocomposites could be varied by more than four orders of magnitude.

    Efficient Dispersion of Magnetite Nanoparticles in the Polyurethane Matrix Through Solution Mixing and Investigation of the Nanocomposite Properties
    Recent studies on inorganic/polymer nanocomposites have shown enhancements in thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties over the neat polymer without compromising density, toughness, and processibility. … The present study is focused on the preparation and characterization of nanosize magnetite-reinforced PU composites, which induces magnetic properties to a specific thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer. The effects of magnetite content on thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are evaluated.

    Investigating the role of transreactions on degradation behavior of phenoxy/poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites using thermal analysis techniques
    The properties of reactive polymer blends are strongly influenced by the interchange/exchange reactions. The effect of nanofillers on these reactions, in particular transreactions, has not yet fully understood. This work is devoted to investigate transesterification and its consequent effect on degradation behavior of phenoxy/poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) nanocomposites using thermal analysis techniques.

    Preparation and characterization of BMI resin/graphite oxide nanocomposites
    BMI resin/graphite oxide nanocomposites were prepared via a solution intercalation method. … The thermal behavior of the nanocomposites was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results show that BMI resin/graphite oxide exfoliated nanocomposites were successfully prepared. The addition of graphite oxide is beneficial to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the nanocomposites obtained exhibit good thermo-stability in comparison with neat BMI resin.

    STA
    Preparation, Characterization, and Activity Evaluation of H-ZSM-5 Catalysts in Vapor-Phase Methanol Dehydration to Dimethyl Ether
    Using the hydrothermal crystallization method, a highly crystalline series of H-ZSM-5 zeolites were prepared in different Si/Al molar ratios (ranging from 25 up to 250). The performance of prepared catalysts was a subject of assessment in the process of methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), where a stainless steel fixed-bed flow reactor at 573 K and 16 barg with WHSV of 26.5 h-1 was used. The catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, NH3-TPD, ICP, TGA/DTA, TPH, and SEM techniques.

    DMA
    Cellulose/graphite oxide composite films with improved mechanical properties over a wide range of temperature
    Regenerated cellulose/graphite oxide (GO) blended films have been prepared in 6 wt.%NaOH/4 wt.%urea aqueous solution by a simple and cost effective method. The structure, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these composite films have been investigated …

    FTIR
    Effect of 3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane-g-Rice Husk Silica on Flame Retardant of ABS/Organomontmorillonite Nanocomposites
    This work focused on an improvement of flame retardant properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) by varying amount of silica and organomontmorillonite (OMT). The silica was extracted from agricultural waste such as rice husk by chemical treatment. The obtained silica was characterized by SEM-EDX, XRF, FTIR, laser particle size analysis, and surface area analysis.

    Oxidation of benzene over bimetallic Cu–Ce incorporated rice husk silica catalysts
    Oxidation of benzene to phenol with 30% H2O2 in liquid-phase was carried out over a series of Cu–Ce incorporated rice husk silica catalysts using acetonitrile as solvent at 343 K under atmospheric pressure. Cu and Ce incorporated rice husk silica catalysts were prepared by the sol–gel technique using cetyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide as the template.

    Layer-by-layer coating of photoactive polymers for biomedical applications
    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials at the molecular level is of tremendous interest for the scientific community because of their potential in several fields, including medicine, biology and tissue engineering. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile technique for the realization of multilayered films with tailored characteristics at the nanometer scale.

    Enhanced wear performance of nylon 6/organoclay nanocomposite by blending with a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer
    A new approach for improving the wear performances of nylon 6 (PA6)/clay nanocomposites was examined in this study. Two hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending a thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) and a well-dispersed PA6/clay nanocomposite, but with and without the incorporation of maleic-anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer. The addition of MAPP improved the compatibility between TLCP and matrix and thus enhanced the fibrillation of dispersed TLCP phase.

    Thermal oxidation of clay-nanoreinforced polypropylene
    The thermo-oxidation process at low temperatures for a montmorillonite-nanoreinforced polypropylene (PP) was studied. Experimental aging kinetic data at 100, 80 and 60 °C have been obtained and compared with a computational simulation in which a kinetic model based on the closed loop approach was used. As a result, it has been found that the montmorillonite role is not limited to a role of inert filler in the polymer matrix but induces a slight catalytic effect leading to induction period reduction.

    UV-VIS
    Complex carbon nanotube-inorganic hybrid materials as next-generation photocatalysts
    Hybridizing carbon nanotubes with complex inorganic nanostructures provides a new route to designing next-generation photocatalysts. These hybrids utilize charge transfer processes through the interface, which reduce the electron–hole recombination rate in the photocatalyst. This work presents the first complex CNT hybrid, using titanium-silicate (TS-1), with dramatically improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic compounds compared with the corresponding nanocomposite and the individual components.

    Layer-by-layer coating of photoactive polymers for biomedical applications
    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials at the molecular level is of tremendous interest for the scientific community because of their potential in several fields, including medicine, biology and tissue engineering. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is a versatile technique for the realization of multilayered films with tailored characteristics at the nanometer scale.

    Functionalization of Diamond Nanoparticles Using "Click" Chemistry
    The paper reports on covalent linking of different alkyne-containing (decyne, ethynylferrocene, and N-propargyl-1-pyrenecarboxamide) compounds to azide-terminated nanodiamond (ND) particles. Azide-terminated particles (ND-N3) were obtained from amine-terminated nanodiamond particles (ND-NH2) through the reaction with 4-azidobenzoic acid in the presence of a carbodiimide coupling agent. Functionalized ND particles with long alkyl chain groups can be easily dispersed in various organic solvents without any apparent precipitation after several hours.

    Poly(vinyl chloride)/Kaolinite Nanocomposites: Characterization and Thermal and Optical Properties

    Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) have been prepared by solution intercalation method using both natural and modified kaolinites. Kaolinite was modified with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to expand the interlayer basal spacing. The characterization of PVC/kaolinite nanocomposites was made by ...  [various analytical techniques including UV-VIS].

    Fluorescence Spectroscopy
    A New Model for Quantifying the Extent of Interaction between Soluble Polyphenylene-Vinylenes and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Solvent Dispersions
    The ability to disperse and, hence, manipulate single-walled carbon nanotubes is critical for their use in organic photovoltaic devices, either as a transparent electrode or as an electron acceptor material. We present data to quantify the physical interaction of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with two soluble phenylene vinylene conjugated polymers, poly[2'-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] and poly(2,5-di(hexyloxy)cyanoterephthalylidene).

  • Synthesis characterization

    A facile and fast approach for the synthesis of doped nanoparticles using a microfluidic device
    The microfluidic approach emerges as a new and promising technology for the synthesis of nanomaterials. A microreactor allows a variety of reaction conditions to be quickly scanned without consuming large amounts of raw material. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of water soluble 1-thioglycerol-capped Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystalline semiconductor nanoparticles (TG-capped ZnS:Mn) via a microfluidic approach.

    Highly stable Ag nanoparticles in agar-agar matrix as inorganic–organic hybrid
    A novel synthesis of inorganic–organic hybrid films containing well dispersed and almost uniform size Ag nanoparticles in agar-agar matrix has been reported. The films are found to be highly stable for more than a year. The colloidal particles of Ag can be obtained in large quantities in the form of a film or in the gel form when dispersed in agar-agar or by dissolving in a suitable solvent as solution. Characterization has been done by UV–visible spectroscopy and TEM.

    ZnO and ZnCdO nanocrystallites obtained by oxidation of precursor Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers.
    ZnO and Zn1-xCdxO nanocrystallites were prepared by oxidation of zinc arachidate–arachidic acid and zinc arachidate–cadmium arachidate–arachidic acid LB multilayers, respectively. The metal content of the multilayers was controlled by manipulation of subphase composition and pH. Precursor multilayers were oxidized in the temperature range of 400 °C–700 °C. The formation of ZnO and Zn1-xCdxO was confirmed by UV–Visible spectroscopy.

    Synthesis and characterisation of controllably functionalised polyaniline nanofibres
    A novel method for functionalising solution based polyaniline (PAni) nanofibres is reported whereby the degree of side-chain attachment can be controllably altered. The covalent attachment of functional sidegroups to the surface of PAni nanostructures is achieved by post-polymerisation reflux in the presence of a nucleophile and the functionalised nanomaterial can be purified by simple centrifugation. The technique is therefore easily scalable.

    Synthesis and aggregation study of tin nanoparticles and colloids obtained by chemical liquid deposition
    Tin colloids (Sn-Colls) and nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical liquid deposition method (CLD). Sn0 was evaporated and codeposited with acetone, 2-propanol, and tetrahydrofurane vapors at 77 K to obtain colloidal dispersions. Sn-Coll were characterized by UV spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)], and light scattering.

    Facile preparation of monodispersed core/shell zinc oxide@ polystyrene (ZnO@ PS) nanoparticles via soapless seeded microemulsion polymerization
    Monodispersed core/shell zinc oxide@polystyrene (ZnO@PS) nanoparticles with chemical bonds between the inorganic core and the polymer shell were prepared successfully by the facile soapless microemulsion polymerization of styrene (St) with the oleic acid modified zinc oxide (OA-ZnO) nanoparticles as seeds, and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator in water. The products were characterized by elemental analysis (EA),

    Living biomembrane bitemplate route for simultaneous synthesis of different morphologies of CdSe and ZnSe nanomaterials
    In this paper, CdSe (nanotubes, nanorods) and ZnSe (nanorods, nanoslats) were simultaneously synthesized through a biomineralization process through biomembrane bitemplates of mungbean sprouts at room temperature. The XRD patterns indicated that these nanocrystals were crystallized in the hexagonal structure and cubic structure with lattice constants a = 0.423 and c = 0.701 nm (CdSe) and a = 0.567 nm (ZnSe), respectively.

    Keggin Ion Mediated Synthesis of Hydrophobized Pd Nanoparticles for Multifunctional Catalysis
    Development of simple and reliable protocols for the synthesis of organically soluble catalytically active metal nanoparticles is an important aspect of research in nanomaterials. We demonstrate herein the formation of Pd nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Pd(NO3)2 by photoexcited Keggin ions (phosphotungstate anions). This results in the formation of Pd nanoparticles capped with with Keggin ions that render the particles negatively charged.

    Adsorption of transition-metal ions in ethanol solution by a nanomaterial based on modified silsesquioxane
    The material octakis[3-(3-amino-1,2,4-triazole)propyl]octasilsesquioxane (ATZ-SSQ) was synthesized and its potential was assessed for Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) from their ethanol solutions and compared with related 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-propyl modified silica gel (ATZSG). The adsorption was performed using a batchwise process and both organofunctionalized surfaces showed the ability to adsorb the metal ions from ethanol solution.

    Magnetic and electrochemical properties of nickel oxide nanoparticles obtained by the reverse-micellar route
    Homogeneous nanoparticles of nickel oxide (NiO) of 25 nm size with narrow size distribution have been synthesized by the reverse-micellar route using CTAB (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide) as the surfactant. FTIR studies show a broad absorption around 405–415 cm-1 and a weak absorption around 82 cm-1 corresponding to a surface-active mode, which is indicative of the nanocrystalline nature of the oxide.

    One-step copolymerization modified magnetic nanoparticles via surface chain transfer free radical polymerization
    Copolymer brushes growing onto magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by surface chain transfer free radical polymerization. Block copolymer brushes (P(PEGMA)-co-PNIPAAm) consist of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (PEGMA) and N-isopropylacrylamide monomer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterized the chemical composition of copolymer.

    The melting behavior of aluminum nanoparticles
    The melting behavior of aluminum nanoparticles having an oxide passivation layer is examined using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both broad and narrow size-distributed particles are studied, and the weight-average particle radius ranges from 8 to 50 nm. With decreasing particle size, the melting response moves towards lower temperatures and the heat of fusion decreases. The effect of the oxide coating on the particles is to apply a compressive force to the aluminum core, thereby increasing the observed melting point and the heat of fusion.

    Sulfate-Functionalized Carbon/Metal-Oxide Nanocomposites from Hydrotalcite-like Compounds
    As a new application of hydrotalcite-like compounds, sulfate-functionalized carbon/metal-oxide nanocomposites have been prepared at relatively low temperatures in a single step, in which interlayer sulfonated polymeric anions are catalytically converted to the nanocarbons (secondary phase) while CoAl-containing brucite-like sheets are converted to the metal oxide matrices.

    Photocatalytic property of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by sparking process
    Titanium oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by sparking off two titanium tips into water for 1–5 h. The nanoparticle-dispersed water was obtained for further characterization. The transmission electron microscopy result shows that the particle size is in the range of 1–5 nm. The electron diffraction patterns and Raman spectra reveal that the as-prepared and the annealed samples at 250 °C are the anatase phase.

    Silver doped titanium dioxide nanomaterials for enhanced visible light photocatalysis
    This paper presents a systematic study on two different preparation methods for titanium dioxide with silver. The silver can be incorporated by irradiating the reaction mixture during preparation to reduce silver ion to silver metal or by direct calcination of the sol–gel material to decompose silver nitrate to silver. Of the two methods, we found the latter produces a more effective photocatalytic material (6–50% improvement in catalytic efficiency), which is attributed to the fact that the silver is homogeneously dispersed throughout the material.

    Poly (hydroethyl acrylate) grafted from ZnO nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization
    Poly(hydroethyl acrylate) (PHEA) was grafted from ZnO nanoparticles via the copper-mediated surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique with the bromo-acetamide modified ZnO nanoparticles (BrA-ZnO) as macroinitiators with the catalysts of 1,10-phenanthroline and Cu(I)Br in water. Graft reaction was first order kinetic with respect to the polymerizing time in the low monomer conversion stage, this being typical for ATRP.

    CdS/ZnS core–shell nanoparticles in arachidic acid LB films
    Core–shell CdS/ZnS nanoparticles in arachidic acid film were prepared through a novel Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) approach. Post-deposition treatment of the precursor LB multilayers of cadmium arachidate with H2S gas followed by intercalation of Zn2+ ions and further sulfidation result in the formation of CdS/ZnS nanoparticles in the LB film. The formation of these nanoparticles and resulting changes in layered structures were studied by FTIR and X-ray reflection measurements.

    SERS enhancement by aggregated Au colloids: effect of particle size
    In this work the spectroscopic properties of a range of samples of monodisperse Au colloids with diameters ranging from 21 to 146 nm have been investigated in solution. The UV/visible absorption spectra of the colloids show complex changes as a function of aggregating salt (MgSO4) concentration which diminish when the colloid is fully aggregated. Under these conditions, the relative RAMAN SERS enhancements provided by the variously sized colloids vary very significantly across the size range.

    Preparation and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles coated paper and its antibacterial activity study
    Coating of ZnO nanoparticles on paper surface has potential technological applications. With this motivation, a simple approach of ultrasound assisted coating of paper with ZnO nanoparticles (20 nm) without the aid of binder is reported for the first time in this work. The ultrasound assisted coating approach concurs with green chemistry as it is simple and environmentally friendly. Scanning electron microscope is used to characterize the surface morphology showing ZnO nanoparticles bound to cellulose fibers.

    CdS/ZnS core–shell nanoparticles in arachidic acid LB films
    Development of simple and reliable protocols for the synthesis of organically soluble catalytically active metal nanoparticles is an important aspect of research in nanomaterials. We demonstrate herein the formation of Pd nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Pd(NO3)2 by photoexcited Keggin ions (phosphotungstate anions). This results in the formation of Pd nanoparticles capped with with Keggin ions that render the particles negatively charged.

    Characterization of silver sulfide nanoparticles synthesized by a simple precipitation method
    Silver sulfide nanoparticles with different sizes were synthesized using a simple aqueous precipitation. Particles were obtained in the presence of three stabilizing agents controlling thus particle size and agglomeration. The particles obtained were characterized using XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal and spectroscopy techniques.

    One-pot synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications
    One-pot reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate, Fe(acac)3, [or Fe(acac)3 and M(acac)2 where M = Mn and Co], with 1,2-alkanediol, oleic acid, and oleylamine in high boiling organic solvent leads to monodisperse ferrite MFe2O4 nanoparticles. Depending on the concentration of the metal precursors, surfactant-to-metal precursor ratio and the solvent used in the reaction, the particle size from this one-pot reaction can be tuned from 4 to 15nm. The as-synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles have an inverse spinel structure, and their magnetic properties are controlled by particle size and M in the MFe2O4 structure. The hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles are readily transformed into hydrophilic ones by functional phospholipid addition to the as-synthesized particles and as a result, the monodisperse nanoparticles are readily functionalized with biotin, –COOH, –SH, and –NH2, facilitating their link to biomolecules for biomedical applications

    Infiltrated and inverted photonic crystals with high index contrast.
    Three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystals are fabricated using the self-assembly method from a colloidal solution of polymethyl methacrylate. The air voids in the crystal are filled with zinc oxide and converted to inverse photonic crystal of zinc oxide. The structural and optical characterization results of the sample are analyzed.

    Copper-ion-induced photoluminescence tuning in CdSe nanoparticles
    Investigations have been made on luminescence properties of copper-doped CdSe nanoparticles, synthesized via green chemical route. The nanoparticles remain stable under normal atmospheric conditions and can be redispersed in suitable solvents (water and dimethyl formamide). The photoluminescence peak positions in the copper doped CdSe nanoparticles are found to strongly depend on the copper ion concentration.

    A novel one-pot route for the synthesis of water-soluble cadmium selenide nanoparticles
    A novel, facile one-pot synthetic route to highly water dispersible and potentially biocompatible CdSe nanoparticles is reported. The monodispersed CdSe particles are passivated by cysteine, with water being the solvent. This route involves the reaction of selenium powder with sodium borohydride to produce selenide ions, followed by the addition of a cadmium salt and l-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride.

    Synthesis, structural and optical properties of CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized by a simple polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) solution route
    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of CeO2 nanoparticles by a simple polymer complex method using cerium (III)) acetate hydrate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the starting chemicals. The precursor was calcined at 500 °C for 2 h to obtain CeO2 nanoparticles. The XRD, FTIR, Raman and electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the calcined CeO2 sample has the fluorite structure of CeO2. TEM revealed that the CeO2 sample consists of crystalline particles of 5–10 nm which are weakly aggregated. UV–vis spectroscopy was also performed to study the optical properties of the synthesized CeO2 sample.

    Polymerization of benzylthiocyanate on silver nanoparticles and the formation of polymer coated nanoparticles
    Olymerization of benzylthiocyanate on silver nanoparticles produces organic shell covered nanoparticles with controllable thickness in a one-pot process. Gram scale quantities of core–shell materials have been synthesized by this method. The methodology involves the addition of the precursor into Ag–citrate solution and the shell nucleates over a period of three weeks with complete precipitation of the core–shell material which can be dispersed subsequently in organic solvents.

    Formation of tungsten oxide nanostructures by laser pyrolysis: stars, fibres and spheres
    Tungsten trioxide is known as a ‘smart material’, because it exhibits excellent electrochromic, photochromic and gasochromic properties. Nano-sized tungsten trioxide has been applied in many nano-photonic devices for applications such as photo-electro-chromic windows, sensor devices and optical modulation devices. Many techniques for synthesizing nano-sized tungsten trioxide have been reported and this article concerns with laser pyrolysis.

  • Toxicology characterization

    Persistent Tissue Kinetics and Redistribution of Nanoparticles, Quantum Dot 705, in Mice: ICP-MS Quantitative Assessment
    Quantum dots (QDs) are autofluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that can be used for in vivo biomedical imaging. However, we know little about their in vivo disposition and health consequences. BACKGROUND: Quantum dots (QDs) are autofluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that can be used for in vivo biomedical imaging. However, we know little about their in vivo disposition and health consequences. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the tissue disposition and pharmacokinetics of QD705 in mice. METHODS:

    In vitro toxicity of silica nanoparticles in human lung cancer cells
    The cytotoxicity of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles was investigated by using crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil 5) as a positive control in cultured human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived cells. Exposure to 15-nm or 46-nm SiO2 nanoparticles for 48 h at dosage levels between 10 and 100 µg/ml decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Both SiO2 nanoparticles were more cytotoxic than Min-U-Sil 5; however, the cytotoxicities of 15-nm and 46-nm silica nanoparticles were not significantly different.