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As the demand for solar power continues to grow, there needs to be a clear focus on different key issues in the life cycle of a solar cell. These issues are: efficiency, durability and cost. Coupling PerkinElmer’s application knowledge and experience together with our product portfolio, we can help manufacturers overcome these obstacles. At PerkinElmer, we’re taking action to ensure the quality of our environment.
Heat capacity measurement has been performed in order to detect a possible second Tg on nanocomposites of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with silicon oxide nanoparticles of different shape. StepScan™ DSC was used for determination of precise heat capacity and HyperDSC® to prevent degradation and identify devitrification of the RAF at elevated temperatures.
In the “Early Drug Discovery Phase” of pharmaceutical development when there is a minimum amount of synthesized drug candidate, quick thermal analysis using a small amount of sample is the norm. The sample amount could be less than 3 mg. Because of the rush to identify possible drug candidates, analytical answers must be given within the day. The STA 6000 with its sensitivity of 0.1 µg allows minimum sample material to obtain reproducible results in half the time.
This study shows that DSC can be used to study the curing degree of the EVA resin by measuring the residual curing enthalpy. The data show that the residual curing enthalpy can be correlated to the curing time in a linear way. The DSC test is quick and easy.
A gas chromatographic analysis of the extract can provide even greater sensitivity and more detailed compositional information, but further increases the time required for the analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) can provide detailed information about the amount and nature of the pollution, while requiring no sample preparation at all. This application note illustrates the kind of data that can be obtained with a modern TG-IR system.
Internal combustion in an engine produces soot as a result of incomplete fuel combustion. The soot deposits deplete the quantity of dispersant additives which may cause an increase in viscosity which in turn increases engine wear. These soot particles adversely affect the engine performance and can lead to damage of the engine parts. This application note demonstrates the quantification of soot content as well as the repeatability of the measurement.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the proximate analysis of two standard samples using the STA and show that the performance is easily able to allow this moderate cost, small profile and sturdy instrument to be used for this type of routine analysis.
Where ?Cp and ?Cp pure are the changes in specific heat at the glass transition temperature, Tg, for the composite, and for the unfilled polymer, respectively. This work suggests an alternative method for determining Cp that takes advantage of fast heating and cooling rates to obtain quantitative Cp in the upper temperature region without having to dwell in that high temperature region to establish an upper isothermal.
One of the most challenging analytical problems with increasing importance is the possibility to analyze soil polluted by the dispersion of organic fluids which sometimes features particularly high boiling points. The current techniques used solvent extraction and headspace chromatographic analysis, have shown their limits. Solvent extraction needs time consuming sample preparation. Headspace makes it impossible to heat the sample at temperatures exceeding 200 °C, which risks not being able to identify the heaviest fractions of the polluting agents.
Many pharmaceutical materials exhibit polymorphism, which means that, depending upon the given processing conditions, the crystalline form may exist in two or more states. The crystalline states or forms exhibit different levels of thermodynamic stabilities and an unstable form can melt at a temperature significantly less than the melting point of the thermodynamically stable form. Depending upon the conditions used to generate the crystalline form(s), the drug may exhibit one or more unstable, polymorphic crystalline states.
The concept of High-Throughput Design has gained more and more interest as a way to increase profitability and to decrease research costs. One technique that can increase the ability of a laboratory to evaluate formulations is HyperDSC™ or High Ramping Rate DSC. HyperDSC is the ability to quantitatively measure small samples at extreme heating and cooling rates, typically 100-500 °C/min.
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