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Fundamental processes in living cells, such as apoptosis and signal transduction are controlled by proteins, often acting in concert with other protein partners through protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Inappropriate protein-protein recognition can fundamentally contribute to many diseases, including cancer. Therefore, inhibiting protein-protein interactions represents an emerging area in drug design.
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a major reason for late stage termination of drug discovery research projects, highlighting the importance of early integration of liver safety assessment in the drug development process. A technical approach for in vivo toxicology determination was developed using Acetaminophen (APAP), a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug, to induce acute hepatocellular liver injury.
With the potential to treat a wide range of disease, from organ damage to congenital defects, stem cell research and tissue engineering form the underlying basis of regenerative medicine. Significant advances in the science of skin regeneration, for example, have now made it possible to develop and grow artificial skin grafts in a lab for treatment of burn victims. Other therapeutic applications include the use of stem cells to treat and repair central nervous system diseases such as ischemia and cerebral palsy, cardiovascular diseases, as well as autoimmune diseases including type I diabetes.
Optical-based in vivo imaging of vascular changes and vascular leak is an emerging modality for studying altered physiology in a variety of different cancers and inflammatory states. A number of fluorescent imaging probes that circulate with the blood, but have no target selectivity, have been used to detect tumor leakiness as an indication of abnormal tumor vasculature. Inflammation is also characterized by distinct vascular changes, including vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, which are induced by the actions of various inflammatory mediators. This process is essential for facilitating access for appropriate cells, cytokines, and other factors to tissue sites in need of healing or protection from infection. This application note investigates the use of three fluorescent imaging probes, to detect and monitor vascular leak and inflammation in preclinical mouse breast cancer models.
Learn how a phenotypic screening assay to study time-dependent effects of endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy was set up using human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes. Learn how: The Opera Phenix system has been applied in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. In this assay, the Opera Phenix system is 4 times faster than the previous Opera® system. Primary neuron morphology is analyzed in a straightforward approach using Harmony software. Careful assay optimization can increase throughput, and minimize the data burden, without compromising assay performance.
Cells constantly sense their environment and their response is a spatio-temporal summation of all signals. To maintain physiological stability, cells need to adjust to environmental changes, a process called homeostasis. One of the most important processes involved in maintaining homeostasis is autophagy, and its significance was recognized by the award of the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 2016 to Yoshinori Ohsumi for the discovery of its underlying mechanisms. Although this is not fully understood, it is believed that autophagy can prevent tumor development by degrading, for example, damaged organelles and protein aggregates.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a key component in the regulation of embryogenesis, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell death. The ERK signaling pathway is altered in various cancer types and is frequently investigated as a target for therapeutic intervention. This application note describes how a live cell FRET assay to study ERK signaling was performed on the Operetta CLS™ high-content analysis system. The optimized design of the FRET-based biosensor, the high-quality imaging of the Operetta CLS system and the easy-to-use image analysis tools of the Harmony® software contribute to the robustness of the high-content assay.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and affects a considerable portion of the elderly population. In the U.S., it is estimated that more than 630 million people worldwide have this chronic condition, generally in the knees. OA occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones within the joints gradually deteriorates, causing synovitis and joint deformation.
The goal of OA research is to identify new therapeutic strategies that could prevent, reduce, halt progression, or repair the existing damage to the joint. Non-invasive in vivo imaging such as microCT is the standard modality for bone research due to its ability to obtain high-resolution images at an x-ray dose low enough as not to harm the animal. This makes microCT ideal for monitoring disease progression and response to treatments in the same animal over time. However, microCT data visualization and analysis can be cumbersome and time consuming. In this application note, we compared standard microCT software and advanced bone software to investigate bone erosion in an OA rat model.
Quantitative pre-clinical fluorescence imaging transcends the boundaries of traditional optical imaging of biological structures and physiology by providing information at the molecular level about disease states and therapeutic response. Fluorescent Pre-clinical Imaging Agents and FMT® (Fluorescence Molecular Tomography) Quantitative Pre-clinical Imaging Systems represent powerful tools for research and drug development in the imaging of biological processes and pharmaceutical activity in living animals.
Analyzing transport of biliary metabolites is essential to predict pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity during drug development. A functional impairment of hepatobilary transporters, such as bile salt export pump (BSEP) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2), is strongly associated with an increased risk of cholestatic liver injury. Here, we describe a 3D high-content screening assay to study hepatobiliary transporter function in InSphero human liver microtissues. Confocal imaging and automated image analysis were used to quantify BSEP and MRP-2-mediated efflux of fluorescent substrates into bile canaliculi.
Fluorescent dyes have been used for many years to label cells for microscopy studies, and a variety of dyes in the visible fluorescence spectrum are available to label different cellular compartments and organelles. Efficient delivery of the fluorophore to the cell without excessively modifying surface proteins or perturbing cell function is the major biotechnological challenge. In addition, researchers have taken on the challenge of in vivo imaging, focusing on near infrared (NIR) dyes that fluoresce in a spectral region better suited for in vivo imaging due to reduced background and higher tissue penetration.
Epifluorescence (2D) imaging of superficially implanted mouse tumor xenograft models offers a fast and simple method for assessing tumor progression or response to therapy. This approach for tumor assessment requires the use of near infrared (NIR) imaging agents specific for different aspects of tumor biology, and this Application Note highlights the ease and utility of multiplex NIR fluorescence imaging to characterize the complex biology within tumors growing in a living mouse.
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The EnVision 2105 multimode plate reader provides exceptional speed, ultra-high throughput, and maximum sensitivity across all detection technologies. Tried and tested, the EnVision microplate reader gives you robust performance and reliable data for high throughput screening, time after time.
The EnVision 2105 model delivers even higher sensitivity for time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) applications, and the Enhanced Security software option includes tools to facilitate 21 CFR Part 11 compliance for integration into regulated environments (GxP). In addition, the Alpha 775 laser module is designed for plant assays.